Chapter 3 elem rdg


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Chapter 3 Teaching Reading in Today's Elementary Schools Roe, Smith

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Chapter 3 elem rdg

  1. 1. Teaching reading intoday’s elementaryschools Assessment and Intervention Chapter 3
  2. 2. Current trends in assessment Assessment is the process of collecting and analyzing data for the purpose of measuring student achievement. Enables teachers to discover student’s strengths and weaknesses Plan appropriate instruction Evaluate the effectiveness of teaching strategies Should involve multiple measures Observations Conferences Interviews Work samples Formal means
  3. 3. Formative Assessment Summative Assessment assessmentContinuous and End of an instructionalongoing periodFeedback on progress Summarize progress offor both teacher and studentslearner Formal- standardized testsObservation records
  4. 4. Current Trends in Assessment Curriculum standards- statements or descriptions of expectations outlining what students should know and be able to do at a particular grade level and in specific content areas AYP- adequate yearly progress- a component of NCLB that requires states and school systems to collect annual data that represent the progress of students in meeting established assessment goals or progress Disaggregated data-scores that show progress of subgroups including racial/ethnic groups, SES, students with disabilities, ELL. Goal of NCLB all students will demonstrate proficiency by 2013- 2014
  5. 5. Current Trends –Standards movement Standards Movement- education movement aimed at getting all students to a specified level or stage. Purpose of movement – to challenge schools to improve Academic- core subject knowledge and performance Content –basic agreement of the body of education knowledge for all students Performance- what level is good enough for students to be described as advanced, proficient, basic, below basic
  6. 6. Current trends- no child left behind act (NCLB) 4 Pillars-1-Stronger accountability2-More freedom for states3-Proven education methods4-More choices for parents The federal No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB), a major reform of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), was passed by Congress and signed into law by the president on January 8, 2002 Long term goal of NCLB- all students will demonstrate academic proficiency by the 2013-2014 school year
  7. 7. Current trends in assessment-high stakes testing Emphasis on accountability created an environment of high-stakes testing Teachers prepare students to demonstrate progress on tests mandated by their states and school districts Creates a climate that encourages “teaching to the test” Greater emphasis on reading and math leads to less emphasis on other subjects Testing has resulted in higher qualifications for teaching
  8. 8. Formal Assessment Formal assessment-The use of a testing instrument based on extensive normative data for which reliability and validity can be verified. Standardized tests-a formal assessment that has been constructed by experts in the field and is administered, scored, and interpreted according to specific criteria. Norm-referenced tests-standardized tests that measure a student’s standing in relation to comparable groups of students across the nation or locally.
  9. 9. Formal assessment Validity- the extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure Reliability-the consistency of scores students would receive on alternate forms of the same test Grade equivalent- grade level in years and months for which a given score was the average score in a standardization sample. Percentile rank- score in terms of its position within a set of 100 scores Stanine- scores are divided into 9 equal parts with 5 as the mean
  10. 10. Limitations of standardizedtests Do tests really reflect what we know about the reading process today? Is the test fair to diverse learners? How are test scores being used?
  11. 11. Criterion-referenced tests  Criterion referenced tests- designed to yield measurements interpretable in terms of specific performance standards  Designed to match standards or expectations of what students should know at successive points or benchmarks  Intended to be used as guides for developing appropriate instruction  Students do not compete with other students but only try to achieve mastery of each objective  Can make reading appear to be a series of skills taught  Difficult to set appropriate standards- too high or low
  12. 12. Alternativeauthentic assessments  Alternative- all types of assessment other than standardized tests  Authentic- a measurement of a student’s performance on activities that reflect real-world learning experiences
  13. 13. Alternative assessments- informal Observation- >Anecdotal Records- written accounts of specific incidents in the classroom >Checklists and rating scales-a quick glance on accomplishments and weaknesses Conferences and Interviews-scheduled or spontaneous Retellings-a student’s retelling of a story can be done oral or written response Rubric Portfolio-enables students and teachers to reflect on student work to evaluate progress
  14. 14. Informal tests- reading skills Informal tests of specific skills- worksheet type format Cloze procedure- a method of estimating reading difficulty by omitting every nth word (usually 5th) in a reading passage. Multimedia and computer approaches-video recordings, presentations, on-line testing Informal reading inventories (IRI)-designed to help teachers determine a child’s independent (on his or her own), instructional (read with help), frustration (baffles), and listening comprehension levels (comprehend when read to).
  15. 15. Informal tests- reading skills Miscue analysis-reading miscue inventory (RMI) considers both the quantity and quality of miscues (unexpected responses) Running records- detailed account of a student’s reading behavior. Used to record miscues during a student’s oral reading and gain information to guide further instruction.
  16. 16. Alternative assessment Subjective- the teacher’s personal biases may influence judgment Can be time consuming it takes longer to write narrative reports about each student than it does to grade a test Teachers must know how to interpret and apply information gained Collect alternative assessments from multiple sources
  17. 17. Assessment of emergentliteracy NAEYC- National Association for the Education of Young Children sets guidelines and recommendations for assessments that are developmentally appropriate for young children. Marie Clay- Concepts About Print-1st 2 years of literacy instruction- provides observation data An Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement – another component used in early literacy assessment
  18. 18. Using assessment to guide intervention Teachers use information collected on student performance data to identify instructional needs for each student and implement an intervention plan of strategies to scaffold student learning. An intervention plan includes: What is to be taught How it is to be taught What will provide evidence that learning occurred
  19. 19. RTI Response to Interventions The RTI model provides a framework for a responsive classroom where the learning environment is modified by three tiers of differentiated instruction Tier 1- Primary Instruction-classroom level Tier 2- Secondary Intervention- involves instruction delivered to those students who are not making adequate progress in Tier 1, the interventionist delivers instruction in small focused groups Tier 3- individual/small-group instruction- students who fail to make progress in Tier 2 are placed in an individual or small group for instruction by a specially trained educator
  20. 20. Assessing text difficulty Methods of identifying text difficulty include the use of readability formulas, cloze tests, and text-leveling techniques. Readability-the difficulty of written material Cloze tests-teachers create a cloze passage from a particular text to determine text difficulty Text leveling techniques-a process that organizes texts according to a defined continuum of characteristics so that students may be matched with appropriate materials
  21. 21. Assessment is-A process not an event Ongoing A necessary part of an instructional program Key way to analyze strengths/weaknesses Best done in a variety of ways