Critical assignment #1 reading strategies


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Before, During, and After reading strategies for grades 6 and up. For readers with a primary focus on non-fiction in each of the categories.

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Critical assignment #1 reading strategies

  1. 1. READING STRATEGIES: BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER Sarah Chadwick April 28, 2014 RED4348 Jennifer Bishop
  2. 2. READING STRATEGIES 1. Pre-write Questions 2. Word Splash 3. Do Now 4. Think-Pair- Share 5. Visual Aids 1. Sticky Notes 2. Lit Circles 3. Text Rendering 4. Response Sheet 5. Pre-write Questions Before During After 1. Whip 2. 3-2-1 Strategy 3. Exit Slip 4. Question- Answer- Relationship 5. Timeline
  3. 3. PRE-WRITE QUESTIONS  This strategy is to be used before reading.  Students survey the text and create questions they think the text was designed to answer.  This sets a purpose for reading.
  4. 4. WORD SPLASH  Word Splash is to be used before reading.  Word Splash is a fun activity that also engages students in writing while providing motivation for reading by setting a clear purpose for reading.  A Word Splash activates prior knowledge about key vocabulary and concepts.  Students write a story using some familiar and unfamiliar words that are found in the text.  Some stories are shared aloud; any misunderstood or unknown words are then defined.
  5. 5. WORD SPLASH CONTINUED…  Directions on how to use Word Splash: 1. First, select 7-10 key words or phrases from the given text; use words that are both familiar and unfamiliar to the students. 2. Dictate the words to the students so that they have to try to spell the words. 3. Have students write a short story of at least seven lines using all the words. 4. Give students a chance to share their stories with a partner; then select several students to read their story aloud. 5. Read the given text to see if any student-generated story was similar to the text.
  6. 6. DO NOW  This strategy is to be used before reading.  Do now activity enables an efficient transition between hall time and class time.  Can be used for introducing a new unit or a new concept in the current unit, quickly review on a learned concept, and to get thoughts on paper for a later discussion or reflection.  A Do Now is a quick question or thought- provoking statement that the students are asked to respond to within a given time.  Usually 3-5 minutes  The question can be written on the board, shown on an overhead or duplicated and passed out.
  7. 7. DO NOW CONTINUED…  The object is to engage students in writing their thoughts without the pressure of being correct and to focus the students on the concept that will be targeted in class that day.
  8. 8. THINK-PAIR-SHARE  Think-Pair-Share is to be used before reading.  The Think-Pair-Share activity is a cooperative learning tool.  This strategy forces interaction and uncovers various perspectives and prior knowledge.  In this strategy, students are given a topic or open-ended question to think about and then to recorded their thoughts on paper.
  9. 9. THINK-PAIR-SHARE CONTINUED…  After writing down their answers, the students are then paired up and asked to share their thoughts with a partner.  The partners are asked to create one concise statement combining both group members’ thoughts.  Once students are done sharing their thoughts, the combined statements are then shared with the class.
  10. 10. VISUAL AIDS  This strategy is to be used before reading.  Pictures and other visual material can activate a students' prior knowledge. For Example:  If a student has some schema for fossils, a simple picture may serve to retrieve appropriate knowledge. Thus a teacher may share this photograph of a fossil before students read a science textbook chapter on fossils.  A picture serves to activate the students' schemata.
  11. 11. STICKY NOTES  Sticky notes are used during reading.  Students use “post its” to write their thoughts and notes.  Students are stick their notes on to the text, where writing in the textbook or novel isn’t allowed.
  12. 12. LIT CIRCLES  This strategy used during reading.  An independent reading activity that prompts student-generated discussions on a chosen text.  Students are active, rather than passive, users of text.  This strategy gets students engaged and prompts them into thinking about the text.
  13. 13. TEXT RENDERING  Text Rendering is used during reading.  A text rendering is a during reading activity that creates interaction between students and text.  Students are expected to mark their text in some way as they read, focusing on a few types of connections.
  14. 14. TEXT RENDERING CONTINUED…  A typical text rendering might focus on three types of student-text interaction.  Using a code to simplify the process:  Placing the symbol (ü) next to some statements with which the student may agree too.  Placing the symbol (!) next to text that appears to state the main idea.  Placing the symbol (?) near text which confuses the reader  During text rendering, a highlighter might be used to highlight the actual words that are connected to the symbol markings.  Additionally, students can be encouraged to write marginal notations, if possible, to capture more of their thoughts as they read
  15. 15. RESPONSE SHEET  This strategy used during reading.  Students note key statements on the left.  Students note personal responses on the right.  The response sheet helps connect text to prior knowledge, and provides meaningful study guide later.  This strategy is based on Cornell note-taking method.
  16. 16. PRE-WRITE QUESTIONS  Pre-write Questions are used during reading.  From the before reading, students would have written questions they thought the text was designed to answer.  The Students are to answer the questions they composed prior to reading.  Then students are to create additional questions that arise as they read the text.
  17. 17. WHIP  This strategy used during reading.  This strategy can be a quick around-the-room activity that ensures everyone’s participation  done to share many different responses to an open- ended question  Another way to use Whip is to complete a quick review of a concept.  To find out if there are misconceptions or errors to clarify.  A whip does not allow critical or corrective comments from either the teacher or other students that might dissuade students from sharing.
  18. 18. WHIP CONTINUED…  Whip is a strategy for total participation and data gathering.  It also provides weaker readers with other perspectives and models of text-based thinking.  Directions: 1. After reading, instruct students to answer aloud, going up and down each row, responding to a given question that connects to the text. Examples:  “Which paragraph offered the best visual description of _______?”  “Read aloud the phrase that stood out in your mind”. 2. The Whip question follows the text rendering, so students are revealing some of their during-reading thought processes.
  19. 19. 3-2-1 STRATEGY  The 3-2-1 strategy is used after reading.  This strategy is a good end-of-the-period activity to review the day’s lesson and promote higher order thinking.  The 3-2-1 strategy involves steps and writting. These steps are:  3 = three things they discovered.  2 = two things they found interesting.  1 = one question they still have.  This writing strategy is to help students comprehend what they have read.
  20. 20. EXIT SLIP  This strategy is used after reading.  The Exit-Slip strategy requires students to write responses to questions the teacher poses at the end of class.  Exit Slips help students reflect on what they have learned and express what or how they are thinking about the new information.  Exit Slips require students to think critically.  Exit Slips are great because they take just a few minutes and provide you with an informal measure of how well your students have understood a topic or lesson.
  21. 21. EXIT SLIP CONTINUED…  There are three categories of exit slips:  Prompts that document learning  Discuss how today's lesson could be used in the real world.  Prompts that emphasize the process of learning  Write one question you have about today's lesson.  Prompts that emphasize the process of learning  Did you enjoy working in small groups today?  Other exit prompts include:  I would like to learn more about…  I wish…  The most important thing I learned today is…  The thing that surprised me the most today was…
  22. 22. QUESTION-ANSWER-RELATIONSHIP (QAR)  Question-Answer-Relationship is used after reading.  QAR teaches students how to decipher what types of questions they are being asked and where to find the answers to them.  QAR empowers students to think about the text they are reading and beyond it, too. It inspires them to think creatively and work cooperatively while challenging them to use literal and higher- level thinking skills.
  23. 23. QUESTION-ANSWER-RELATIONSHIP CONTINUED…  Four types of questions are examined in the QAR.  Right There Questions: Literal questions whose answers can be found in the text. Often the words used in the question are the same words found in the text.  Think and Search Questions: Answers are gathered from several parts of the text and put together to make meaning.  Author and You: These questions are based on information provided in the text but the student is required to relate it to their own experience. Although the answer does not lie directly in the text, the student must have read it in order to answer the question.  On My Own: These questions do not require the student to have read the passage but he/she must use their background or prior knowledge to answer the question
  24. 24. TIMELINE  This strategy is used after reading.  Timelines help determine the sequence of major events, cause/effect relationships, and how events influence people.  This study skill:  Helps students organize dates, numbers, and other information efficiently  Helps students visually remember when events occurred  Gives students a framework to add additional information to while studying
  25. 25. TIMELINE CONTINUED…  Procedure for using timelines:  Ensure that the dates/ideas you are using are truly important.  Create a brief, general line of events happening in the world at the same time as the events the students need to know for the class.  The general timeline gives students the framework to add additional information to.  Give the general timeline to the students at the beginning of your session.  Have students draw another timeline below the general one. Work on filling in key dates and ideas from their notes on the new timeline.  Discussion should be focused on making sure everyone’s dates correlate and answer any questions that may still remain.
  26. 26. REFERENCES Indiana University:Bepko Learning Center. (2002-2014). Timelines. Retrieved from melines.aspx Kolega, P. (2014). Pennsylvania department of education: A- after (post reading). Retrieved from after_reading_strategies/7540/a_-_after_(post_reading)/508382 Kolega, P. (2014). Pennsylvania department of education: B- before (pre-reading). Retrieved from after_reading_strategies/7540/b_-_before_(pre-reading)/508378 Kolega, P. (2014). Pennsylvania department of education: D-during (reading & rereading). Retrieved from after_reading_strategies/7540/d_-_during_(reading___rereading)/508381 Porter, K. (n.d.). Reading: Strategies to activate prior knowledge. Retrieved from
  27. 27. REFERENCES CONTINUED… Seminole County Public Schools. (2014). Teaching and learning: After reading strategies. Retrieved from econdaryReading/AfterReading.aspx Weimer, M. (2010). Lesson plan: Reading informational texts using the 321 strategy. Retrieved from plans/reading-informational-texts-using-951.html WETA. (2014). Classroom strategies: Exit slips. Retrieved from WETA. (2014). Classroom strategies: Question-answer relationship (qar). Retrieved from