By the end of this session Trs. will be abletoIdentify the RT features.Identify the 4 RT techniques.The importance and the characteristic ofthe 4 techniques.Asses students who use the RT.Start and continue Reciprocal Teaching bythemselves.Recognize who will benefit from the RT.Identify how much time you need tomonitor Ss. using RT.
What is Reciprocal Teaching?Reciprocal Teaching is a technique used to developcomprehension of expository text in whichteacher and students take turns leading adialogue concerning sections of a text. Fouractivities are incorporated into the technique:prediction, questioning, summarizing andclarifying misleading or complex sections of thetext.
Why is it important for students to design their own questions?Students involved in the Reciprocal Teaching processare checking their own understanding of the materialthey have encountered. They do this by generatingquestions and summarizing. Expert scaffolding isessential for cognitive development as students movefrom spectator to performer after repeatedmodelling by adults.
How will Reciprocal Teaching benefit students?The purpose of Reciprocal Teaching is to help students,with or without a teacher present, actively bring meaningto the written word. The strategies chosen not onlypromote reading comprehension but also provideopportunities for students to learn to monitor their ownlearning and thinking. The structure of the dialogue andinteractions of the group members require that allstudents participate and foster new relationshipsbetween students of different ability levels.
Which students will benefit the mostfrom the Reciprocal Teaching strategy?Reciprocal Teaching has proved to be useful with a widely diversepopulation of students. The RT procedure was designed to improvethe reading comprehension ability of students who were adequatedecoders but had poor comprehension. However, modifications ofthis procedure have been used to teach students who were poordecoders, second language learners or non-readers. Poordecoders used the procedure as a read-along activity, secondlanguage learners used it to practice developing skills while non-readers learned it as a listening comprehension activity. Teachershave observed that even normally achieving or above averagestudents profit from strategy instruction because it allows themto read and understand more challenging texts. Also, studentswith more experience and confidence help other students in theirgroup to decode and understand what is being read; students withmore experience in questioning (i.e. weaker students) stimulatedeeper thinking and understanding in their more academically
How do I assess students using theReciprocal Teaching strategy in theirreading?Listening to students during thedialogue is the most valuable meansfor determining whether or notstudents are learning the strategiesand whether or not the strategies arehelping them. In whole groupsettings, students may be asked towrite out questions and summaries tobe checked by the teacher or other
How long should teachers continue tomonitor students using the ReciprocalTeaching strategy?Continuous monitoring and evaluation ofperformance should take place to determinethe kind of support or scaffolding the studentsneed to successfully execute the strategies.Monitoring, however, may become moreinfrequent when students become more adeptat monitoring their own performance.
What support do teachersneed to start and continueReciprocal Teaching?Teachers wishing to adopt the Reciprocal Teaching technique intotheir curriculum should have the digest provided complete withgraphic organizers of the questioning, summarizing, clarifying andpredicting strategies. Some thought must be made about the text toprovide for instructive purposes during the learning phase. Theability level of the students should be taken into account beforechoosing a challenging text. A daily journal would be helpful torefer to as students are scaffolding at different rates. Also, atleast one other teacher to collaborate with and debrief
Sources:Carroll, Ann-Martin. (1988) Reciprocal Teaching. Presentation given at the California Reading Association, San Diego, CA.Palincsar, A. S. & Brown, A. (1984). Reciprocal Teaching of Comprehension- Fostering and Comprehension Monitoring Activities. Cognition and Instruction, 1(2), 117-175.Walker, B. (1988). Diagnostic Teaching of Reading. Columbus, Ohio: Merrill Publishing Co.