SOCIAL STUDIES FOR 9 TH EGB
TEACHER: MAURICIO TORRES
The romans made lasting achievements in
science, engineering, architecture and art. In addition, Rome’s
literary tradition and legal system remain influential today.
The romans took a practical approach to their
study of science and engineering. They were
looking for results that could benefit their society
(less philosophy, more action!)
They studied the stars: created a calendar.
They studied plants and animals: they
obtained better crops and meat.
To improve health, Roman doctors studied the
works of the Greeks. One great doctor was
Galen. Who lived in the 100s.
He studied the body: described the valves in
the heart and could tell the difference
between veins and arteries.
His teachings have been studied for many
The romans were great builders! To
support their structures they
developed new materials (cement)
and designs (roads built by layers –
page 330-331 on your book for more
• Their structures were usually built
over arches. Their strength
allowed for these building to last
centuries, all the way until today!
• For example, to build aqueducts
(a raised channel used to carry
water from mountains into
cities), they used arches.
Even though they were practical people, romans also enjoyed
beauty. This can easily be observed in their works of art and
• But since Roman adopted many Greek designs, they used
columns to support their massive buildings and also covered
them in marble.
• Their engineering advances let them create bigger and better
structures than the Greeks ever dreamed of. Specially by the
use of vaults (a set of arches that support the roof of a
Roman artists were known for their
beautiful mosaics, paintings and
• Mosaics and paintings were used
to decorate Roman buildings.
Most Roman paintings were
frescoes (a type of painting done
• These painters were skilled at
creating portraits (pictures of
• Roman sculptors studied what the
Greeks had done and tried to recreate this brilliance in their own
Rome was home to many of the greatest authors of the ancient
• One such author was Virgil, who wrote a great epic about the
founding of Rome, the Aeneid.
They produced histories, speeches and dramas that are still
studied today. They were written in Latin, the language of
government and law. But on the eastern half, Greek was just as
• Latin later developed into other languages, which are called
Romance Languages. These include:
Italian, Spanish, French, Romanian, Portuguese.
Rome´s longest lasting achievement
may have been in the field of law.
Even after the collapse of the empire,
Roman laws still existed and were
used in many of the kingdoms that
Over time, Roman law inspired a
system called Civil Law (a legal
system based on the written code
Most countries in Europe today
(and the world) have Civil Law
traditions. When European
colonists sailed all over the Earth,
they carried their civil law all over
Africa, Asia and the Americas.
• Importance of written laws
• Large and strong buildings
• Equal treatment for all
• Columns and open spaces
• Rights and duties of
• Realistic statues
• Excellent, durable roads
• Strong bridges
• Aqueducts to move water
• Building designs that
inspired later societies
• Lifelike portraits
• Focused on improving
• Stoic philosophy
emphasized people’s civic
The many achievements of the
Romans, were able to survive for
thousands of years due to the far reach of
the Empire, just as Hellenistic
Civilization elements survived through it.
The many years of Roman rule over a
diversity of nations, allowed it to be
absorbed by millions of people.
When the empire collapsed, a lot was lost.
But through many different ways, it was
able to survive in its culture and ruins.
• What is an important medical discovery done in Roman
• What architectural features did the Romans copy from the
• Why was cement such a useful material?
• Draw conclusions:
• How were Romans able to increase the size of their
• What are the four types of art in which Romans excelled?