Roman Achievements


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Roman Achievements

  2. 2. BACKGROUND The romans made lasting achievements in science, engineering, architecture and art. In addition, Rome’s literary tradition and legal system remain influential today.
  3. 3. SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING The romans took a practical approach to their study of science and engineering. They were looking for results that could benefit their society (less philosophy, more action!) • They studied the stars: created a calendar. • They studied plants and animals: they obtained better crops and meat. To improve health, Roman doctors studied the works of the Greeks. One great doctor was Galen. Who lived in the 100s. • He studied the body: described the valves in the heart and could tell the difference between veins and arteries. • His teachings have been studied for many centuries!
  4. 4. SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING The romans were great builders! To support their structures they developed new materials (cement) and designs (roads built by layers – page 330-331 on your book for more information). • Their structures were usually built over arches. Their strength allowed for these building to last centuries, all the way until today! • For example, to build aqueducts (a raised channel used to carry water from mountains into cities), they used arches.
  5. 5. ARCHITECTURE AND ART Even though they were practical people, romans also enjoyed beauty. This can easily be observed in their works of art and architecture. • But since Roman adopted many Greek designs, they used columns to support their massive buildings and also covered them in marble. • Their engineering advances let them create bigger and better structures than the Greeks ever dreamed of. Specially by the use of vaults (a set of arches that support the roof of a building).
  6. 6. ARCHITECTURE AND ART Roman artists were known for their beautiful mosaics, paintings and statues. • Mosaics and paintings were used to decorate Roman buildings. Most Roman paintings were frescoes (a type of painting done on plaster). • These painters were skilled at creating portraits (pictures of people). • Roman sculptors studied what the Greeks had done and tried to recreate this brilliance in their own statues.
  7. 7. LITERATURE AND WRITING Rome was home to many of the greatest authors of the ancient world. • One such author was Virgil, who wrote a great epic about the founding of Rome, the Aeneid. They produced histories, speeches and dramas that are still studied today. They were written in Latin, the language of government and law. But on the eastern half, Greek was just as important. • Latin later developed into other languages, which are called Romance Languages. These include: Italian, Spanish, French, Romanian, Portuguese.
  8. 8. LAW Rome´s longest lasting achievement may have been in the field of law. Even after the collapse of the empire, Roman laws still existed and were used in many of the kingdoms that followed. • Over time, Roman law inspired a system called Civil Law (a legal system based on the written code of laws). • Most countries in Europe today (and the world) have Civil Law traditions. When European colonists sailed all over the Earth, they carried their civil law all over Africa, Asia and the Americas.
  9. 9. ROMAN ACCOMPLISHMENTS GOVERNMENT ARCHITECTURE • Importance of written laws • Large and strong buildings • Equal treatment for all citizens • Columns and open spaces • Rights and duties of citizens • Realistic statues ENGINEERING • Excellent, durable roads • Strong bridges • Aqueducts to move water • Building designs that inspired later societies ART • Lifelike portraits PHILOSOPHY • Focused on improving people’s lives • Stoic philosophy emphasized people’s civic duty.
  10. 10. SUMMARY The many achievements of the Romans, were able to survive for thousands of years due to the far reach of the Empire, just as Hellenistic Civilization elements survived through it. The many years of Roman rule over a diversity of nations, allowed it to be absorbed by millions of people. When the empire collapsed, a lot was lost. But through many different ways, it was able to survive in its culture and ruins.
  11. 11. ASK YOURSELF • Identify: • What is an important medical discovery done in Roman times? • What architectural features did the Romans copy from the Greeks? • Explain: • Why was cement such a useful material? • Draw conclusions: • How were Romans able to increase the size of their buildings? • Recall: • What are the four types of art in which Romans excelled?