Weakness of the Roman Empire and reasons that led to its downfall
Origins of Islam
Teachings of Mohammad
Contributions of Muslim scholars in the areas of science, geography, math, medicine, art and literature
Buddhism, Daoism, Confucianism
Tang, Sung, and Ming Dynasties
7.4 Sub-Saharan Civilizations of Ghana and Mali in Medieval Africa
Written and oral traditions in transmission of African history and culture
Geography of forest, and desert of Sub-Saharan West Africa and how it affected trade in gold, salt, food, and slaves
Lord vassal system of Shogun, Daimyo and Samurai
Japan’s proximity to China and Korea and the influence of those countries on Japan
7.6 Medieval Europe
Role of the Church and monasteries after the fall of Rome
Development of Feudalism including role of the manor and the growth of towns an political order
Religious Crusades and the effect on Muslim/Jewish populations
Spread of the Black Death
Importance of the Catholic Church
Compare and contrast the cultures of the Aztec, Maya, and Inca including roles of the people within each society and region
How the Aztec and Inca empires were defeated by the Spanish
Achievements in astronomy and mathematics
Revival of classic learning
Independent trading cities
Importance of Florence, Italy
Dante, Shakespeare, da Vici, Michelangelo
Internal decay of the Catholic Church
Erasmus, Martin Luther, John Calvin, Henry VIII
Jews and Muslims in Medieval Spain
7.10 Scientific Revolution
Copernicus, Galileo, Kepler, and Newton
Bacon and Descartes
7.11 Age of Exploration
Explorers and map makers
7.1 The Fall of Rome
Contributions of the Roman Empire LAW Rule of law; Many modern legal systems are based on Roman laws; equal justice under the law RELIGION Spread of Christianity LANGUAGE Romance languages based on Latin (Spanish, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian) ENGINEERING Concrete, arches, domes, aqueducts ARCHITECTURE Monuments, forums, public baths
Weakness of the Roman Empire and reasons that led to its downfall <ul><li>Weak central government </li></ul><ul><li>Divided empire = East vs. West </li></ul><ul><li>Armies made up largely of foreign soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Barbarian invasions </li></ul>Political Causes Military Causes <ul><li>High taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Weakening of trade and farming because of constant war </li></ul><ul><li>Decline of city population </li></ul><ul><li>Gap between rich and poor </li></ul><ul><li>Undermining of citizenship </li></ul><ul><li>Slavery </li></ul>Economic Causes Social Causes
Byzantine Empire After the Roman Empire was split in two, the term Byzantine Empire was used to describe the Eastern portion of the former Roman Empire. Although the Byzantine Empire preserved the learning of ancient Greeks and Romans, it had a long and violent history.
Constantinople Was the strong capital city in the Byzantine Empire. It was named after the Roman Emperor Constantine. Constantinople's location made it a perfect stopping place both for merchants traveling overland and those traveling by sea between Europe and Asia.
Origins of Islam Islam means “submission” to Allah. Believers in Islam are called “Muslims- “those who submit to Allah’s will”
Islam , Judaism , and Christianity are all based on a belief in one God. Muslims view the message of Muhammad as the completion of teachings in the Hebrew Scriptures and Christian new Testament. Muslims believe the Qur’an contains the word of God revealed to Muhammad. The Sunnah refers to the teachings and practices of Muhammad.
<ul><li>Teachings of Mohammad </li></ul><ul><li>The Sunna are the guiding rules for Islam and were based on the way the prophet Muhammad lived his life. The most basic of these rules are the Five Pillars of Islam: </li></ul><ul><li>Profession of faith. “There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is his prophet.” </li></ul><ul><li>Prayer. Muslims must pray five times a day. </li></ul><ul><li>Giving alms, or showing charity to the poor. </li></ul><ul><li>Ritual fast during the holy month of Ramadan. </li></ul><ul><li>Hajj-pilgrimage to Mecca </li></ul>
Contributions of Muslim scholars in the areas of: science, geography, math, medicine, art and literature. Science: Muslim astronomers mapped the solar system and the world: long before Columbus's time Muslim scholars knew that the earth was round. Math: Modern algebra is based on the mathematics of al Khwarizmi. One of his books, al jabr , is the basis for the word algebra. Medicine: Muslim doctors became skilled at diagnosis and treatment of disease and used herbal medicines. Doctors performed surgery on patients in clean hospitals that were free to the public.
Art Calligraphy and geometric designs , rather than the human form was the focus of Muslims art. Creating images of living things like humans and animals, which have souls, is forbidden. Literature In time the skill of paper making spread throughout the Muslim World, making books more available. Muslim scholars helped preserve Greek and Romans classics that might otherwise have been lost or destroyed.
Buddhism, Buddhism, is a religion based on the teachings of the Indian spiritual leader Siddhartha Gautama. He is also known as the Buddha , or “the Enlightened One.” Gautama taught that life involves suffering. The way to ease suffering is to give up worldly desires and seek perfect wisdom known as enlightenment . Those who achieve enlightenment enter nirvana , or a state of complete peace. Those who enter nirvana also escape the endless cycle of suffering, death, and rebirth.
Daoism Daoism, is an ancient Chinese philosophy. Dao means the “Way" or the “way of nature.” Its basic teaching is that all things-earth, heaven, and people- should follow the Dao. If this happens, all will be well in the world.
<ul><li>Confucianism </li></ul><ul><li>Confucianism, is a system of ethics and morals based on the teachings of Confucius, a great Chinese teacher and philosopher. </li></ul><ul><li>There are four basic Confucian principles: </li></ul><ul><li>respect for the social order, </li></ul><ul><li>respect for social rank, </li></ul><ul><li>the importance of education, </li></ul><ul><li>and a ruler’s moral obligation to their people. </li></ul><ul><li>His philosophy was designed to restore peace and stability in China. </li></ul>
Zheng He Zheng was an adventurous court official who assembled a fleet of more than 300 ships carrying 27,00 men. Some of these ships were 400 feet long, larger than any built before. Zheng He traveled throughout Southeast Asia to the coast of India on his first expedition. Later voyages went as far as the Persian Gulf and the east coast of Africa.
Mongols The Mongols encouraged trade and commerce. They reopened the Silk Road across Asia that linked China to Europe. Traders took caravans across the Asian continent. They carried silk, porcelain, spices, and luxury goods to Europe. Traders carried ideas and inventions between East and West too. Genghis Khan
Tang, Song, and Ming Dynasties The Tang Dynasty united China in 618. The Tang ruled China for nearly 300 years. They expanded China’s borders and created political unity, and a strong central government. The Tang era was also known as a golden age for Chinese arts and literature. The Song Dynasty, ruled China for more than 300 years. Following the Tang, the Song period was also an era of good government. Under the song, China developed a merit system for choosing and promoting government officials. Civil Servants were highly educated people who entered government only after passing special examinations. During the Tang and Song Dynasties, the Chinese pioneered a number of new inventions. Among these were: gunpowder, paper, block and movable type printing presses, the magnetic compass and many more. Their discovers eventually spread to Europe, and the rest of the world. The Ming Dynasty, overthrew the Mongols who had ruled China for years, and restored Chinese rule. After sponsoring a series of sea voyages, the Ming turned away from the outside world. The rulers of China believed China had everything it needed at home.
7.4 Sub-Saharan Civilizations of Ghana and Mali in Medieval Africa
Importance of family development of West Africa Kinship or family relationship, was the basis for government. The male head of each clan became one of the village chiefs and often one of the religious leaders. Sometimes a council of family elders made up the village government. Within the family, everyone had jobs and responsibilities according to age, skills gender as well as tradition.
Written and oral traditions in transmission of African history and culture. People sometimes repeat stories or fables in order to teach wisdom or moral lessons. Passing down customs, history, legends art, and poetry through oral traditions was an important part of West African culture.
Geography of forest, and desert of Sub-Saharan West Africa and how it affected trade in gold, salt, food, and slaves. The savanna is a strip of grasslands dotted with oases on the Sahara’s southern border. This region is known as the sahel, or “shore of the desert.” Its landscape ranges from the desert in the north to scattered vegetation in the south. On the sahel, scant rainfall and occasional oases make some farming possible. Ghana was in an ideal position for trade. It lay between the sahel and Sahara in the north, and the highlands and tropical forests of the south. In combination with the rivers, gold, salt, food and slaves were easily traded in Ghana
<ul><li>Vassal system of Japan: </li></ul><ul><li>Shogun </li></ul><ul><li>Daimyo </li></ul><ul><li>Samurai warriors </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans </li></ul><ul><li>Peasants </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants </li></ul>
<ul><li>Japan’s proximity to China and Korea and the influence of those countries on Japan </li></ul><ul><li>Japan borrowed its writing system from China. </li></ul><ul><li>Prince Shotoku, like the Chinese, promoted the spread of Buddhism, building many temples. </li></ul><ul><li>the Prince Shotoku, strengthened the central government and also adopted Chinese-style changes, such as claiming all property outside the capital. </li></ul>
Types of Japanese Buddhism: Pure Land Buddhism: This denomination of Buddhism stresses happiness in afterlife rather than finding peace, or enlightenment, in this life on earth. It taught that believers would be reborn into a blissful, pure land, or paradise. Zen Buddhism: Zen taught that physical and mental exercise would produce a sudden recognition of the nature of existence, and enlightenment. Zen Buddhism was very popular with the Samurai class.
Role of the Church and monasteries after the fall of Rome The church continued such traditions of the empire as using the Latin language, and making its center Rome. Laws under Christian rulers included many elements of the Roman systems of property ownership and taxation. Monasteries, or religious communities formed by monks, devoted themselves to preserving the ideas of ancient Rome and Greece, as well as church writings.
Development of Feudalism including the role of the manor and the growth of towns and political order. Feudalism was a social and political arrangement that was rooted in the people’s need for protection against invaders and in landowner’s needs for defense. Small farmers turned to powerful landowners for protection. People received protection in return for service as soldiers or for turning over title and ownership of their land to the large landowners. The manor, or home of the large landowner became the center for feudal life and a place for safety during battle. It was built for security, not for comfort.
Not all people lived in feudal manors. Peasants seeking freedom, younger sons of nobles seeking a fortune, scholars seeking new ideas, and freed serfs left the country manor for towns. The town was were feudalism began to die. Powered by trade, the new commercial way of life that developed in the towns looked beyond the closed world of the manor.
Charlemagne Charlemagne made his defeated opponents accept the Roman church and swear loyalty to him as their new ruler. In 800 Charlemagne marched into Italy to help Pope Leo III put down a rebellion there. Charlemagne also made sure that religious services were performed the same way throughout Europe. He forced illiterate clergy to become educated, and tried to rid the church of corruption.
Magna Carta In 1215, Parliament forced King John of England, to sign a document known as the Magna Carta . The Magna Carta acknowledges the rights of the lords and prevented the king from taking those rights away. By subjecting the king to the rule of law, the Magna Carta became the basis for future reforms. Our own Bill of Rights and the concept of “ due process of law ” grew out of the Magna Carta.
Religious Crusades and the effect on Muslim/Jewish populations The crusades were a series of eight wars Europeans fought to win the Holy Land from the Muslims. These wars, called the crusades, occurred between 1096 and 1270. Four of the eight crusades involved Europeans in major warfare. Those who fought were called crusaders, because they vowed to “take up the cross.” At the same the crusaders set out to fight Muslims in the East, the crusaders destroyed a number of Jewish towns along the Rhine River. Along the way, crusaders slaughtered the eastern and western Jewish populations.
Spread of the Black Death The plague was a disease that swept like wildfire through Europe beginning in 1347. It was first seen in China in 1331 and in 15 years spread across Asia to the Black Sea.
People later called it the Black Death, because black spots formed under the skin from internal bleeding. By the late 1300’s one fourth to one third of the population of Europe had died. In some towns, over fifty percent of the people died.
Importance of the Catholic Church In medieval Europe, the Church was the sole source of truth and a center for authority. The Church controlled almost all areas of thought and teaching, preserving the Latin language and religious texts. In addition, the Church helped to found the first universities. This gave the Church great power. Even kings had to submit to the teachings of the Church and the judgments of the pope. No one dared to challenge the power of the Church.
Compare and contrast the cultures of the, Maya , Inca and Aztec including roles of the people within each society and region. <ul><li>Writing system </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation system </li></ul><ul><li>Poetry </li></ul><ul><li>Sculptures </li></ul><ul><li>Irrigation system </li></ul><ul><li>Terrace farming </li></ul><ul><li>Road system with bridges, tunnels </li></ul><ul><li>Writing system </li></ul><ul><li>Discoveries in mathematics, astronomy </li></ul><ul><li>Calendar </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture </li></ul>Achievements <ul><li>Belief in many gods </li></ul><ul><li>Human sacrifice </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in many gods </li></ul><ul><li>Belief in many gods </li></ul><ul><li>Human sacrifice </li></ul>Religion <ul><li>Farming; trade </li></ul><ul><li>Farming; trade </li></ul><ul><li>Farming </li></ul>Economy <ul><li>King </li></ul><ul><li>City-states governed by local chiefs </li></ul><ul><li>Emperor </li></ul><ul><li>Empire divided with separate rulers. </li></ul><ul><li>City-states with separate rulers </li></ul>Government Aztec Inca Maya
Compare and contrast the cultures of the, Maya, Inca and Aztec including roles of the people within each society and region The Maya were divided into two main classes: nobles and commoners. The nobles: the king, top officials, and priests. The majority of Maya society were commoners, mostly farmers, who worked the land of the Empire. Lower ranking lords and higher ranking commoners formed a kind of middle class. M A Y a
There were three ranks of nobles: nobles by birth, Appointed nobles, and Non-Inca Chiefs. Commoners were divided into categories based on age and gender. Compare and contrast the cultures of the, Maya, Inca and Aztec including roles of the people within each society and region I n c a
Compare and contrast the cultures of the, Maya, Inca and Aztec including roles of the people within each society and region The Aztec were divided into two main classes: nobles and commoners. The largest group of commoners were farmers, but also included groups such as artisans and merchants. At the lowest level were slaves who worked for the noble families. A Z tec
How the Aztec Empire was defeated by the Spanish In 1519, Hernando Cortes sailed to Mexico to conquer the rich Aztec Empire. When Cortes and his soldiers reached the capital of the Aztecs, Moctezuma, their king welcomed Cortes as an honored guest. Tensions mounted between the Aztecs and the Spaniards. In the battle that broke out, Moctezuma was killed. Soon after, the Spanish were forced to retreat. Cortes returned and began a siege of the city. Then, a smallpox epidemic killed most of the Aztecs. The survivor surrendered in 1521.
How the Inca Empire was defeated by the Spanish Francisco Pizarro and a small group of conquistadors came to the Inca Empire in 1531. There, a smallpox epidemic had killed many Incas. Pizarro took advantage of the chaos in the empire. He invited Atahualpa, the emperor, to a friendly meeting and then had him imprisoned. Atahualpa arranged for a ransom that added up to almost 20 tons of gold and silver. This was said to be the largest ransom in history. However, Pizarro did not honor his end of the bargain. He rejected the Inca ransom and ordered Atahualpa killed, with that the Inca Empire was defeated.
Achievements in astronomy and mathematics The Mayas were brilliant astronomers. Although they had no telescopes, they made detailed observations of the heavens. They plotted the positions of the sun, moon and planets. With this data, they were able to predict events such as eclipses of the sun, and the moon. The Mayas used a 260-day religious calendar and a 365-day solar calendar. The Mayas also developed an advanced number system. The Maya understood the concept of zero long before Europeans did. Their number system was flexible enough to be used for multiplication and division.
Revival of classic learning The word Renaissance means, “rebirth.” Renaissance thinkers focused on three main ideas of the ancient Greeks and Romans. The first idea, was individual worth. During the Renaissance, people began to feel humans could improve themselves through study and reflection. The second idea that impressed Renaissance thinkers was a strong commitment to public service. Wealthy families helped to support artists and writers so that all citizens of the community could enjoy artistic and literary works. The third idea that Renaissance thinkers encouraged was the development of a variety of skills and talents.
Independent trading cities Italy was made up of about 250 small states. Most of these states were ruled by cities and were called city-states. Because of their location on the Mediterranean Sea, the Italian city-states were a natural crossroads between northern Europe and the lands of the Middle East and Africa. For this reason, Italy led medieval Europe in commercial growth. The growth of trade promoted a free flow of ideas. Traders came in contact with new ideas and customs. People began to open their minds to new ways of thinking and doing things.
Importance of Florence, Italy The Renaissance got it start in the city of Florence. One of the most powerful families in Florence was the Medici family. The Medici's spent large sums of money on artistic and architectural projects. Other families, Guilds and civic groups also hired artists to create works of art. As a result, Florence became a showcase of Renaissance art and architecture. The people of Florence took great pride the beauty of their city.
Marco Polo Marco Polo, was a traveler from Venice, Italy. Polo lived in China from 1275 until 1292. Although only 17 years old when he arrived in China, Polo served the Mongol ruler, Kublai Khan, as an ambassador and in other ways. He later described his visit, which was the first accurate record of China by a European.
Dante Dante was an Italian writer born in the late 1200’s. He is best known for The Divine Comedy . This long poem describes an imaginary journey through heaven and hell. Dante wrote the poem in Italian rather than in Latin. The Divine Comedy is still considered one of the greatest literary work of all time.
William Shakespeare William Shakespeare was a poet, an actor, and a master playwright. Shakespeare’s characters were full of life, wit, and passion. They reveal the strengths and weaknesses of people from all walks of life. Many plays were built around historic figures, such as Julius Caesar and the Kings of England.
Leonardo da Vinci Leonardo da Vinci was one of the greatest figures of the Renaissance. As an artist, he is known for the Mona Lisa and many other paintings. He is one of the greatest scientific thinkers of his day. Leonardo was curious about how things worked. With his strong desire to learn and his many talents, Leonardo was the ideal Renaissance man.
Michelangelo Michelangelo studied anatomy so he could sculpt and draw the human figure realistically. He is remembered for his sculpture, David, and his painting of the Sistine Chappell.
Internal decay of the Catholic Church The Reformation was a religious movement that began in the 1500’s to reform internal decay of the Catholic Church. Many bishops, and even the pope had broken their religious vows and fathered children. Priests were poorly trained. Church leaders rose to power because of their wealth or political influence. They often neglected their duties. The Church also raised money by selling indulgences, or pardons for sins. Some priests promised their followers that they-and their dead relatives-would be guaranteed entry into heaven if they contributed a certain sum of money to the Church. The clergy seemed more concerned with amassing wealth and power than in saving souls.
Erasmus Erasmus, was a Dutch priest and a 16 th century humanist, wanted to reform the church. He believed that church teachings should be easy for everyone to understand, and that everyone should be able to read the bible, not just the clergy .
Martin Luther Martin Luther, was a priest and professor who wrote the, Ninety-Five Theses, a paper that was an invitation to debate certain church issues. Luther believed a person could be made just, or good, by his or her faith in God. His Ninety-Five Theses sparked a religious movement to reform the Catholic church that is known as the Reformation. Because reformers were protesting against what they felt to be the abuses of the Catholic church, they became known as Protestants.
John Calvin John Calvin, a Frenchman educated in law, urged Christians to study the Bible on their own and deepen their faith. He taught that God had already chosen, or predestined a special group of believers for salvation.
Henry VIII Henry VIII of England, argued with the pope that he should be able to divorce, even though it was against church rules. Henry persuaded the English parliament to declare England independent of all foreign authorities, including the pope. With that, the Church of England, and the Catholic Church split.
Jews and Muslims in Medieval Spain Until the late 1300s, Jews had lived quite safely in the Christian kingdoms. Then anti-Jewish attacks began. Determined to unite Spain as a Catholic country, the Spanish Inquisition used terror and torture against Jews and Muslims. Finally, in 1492, the rulers ordered all Jews to leave Spain. Later, the Muslims also were ordered to leave. The loss of these two groups did great harm to Spain’s economy and culture.
7.10 Scientific Revolution Scientists in the 1500s had new tools for studying the word. The answers they found marked the beginning of the “Scientific Revolution”
Copernicus Nicolaus Copernicus was a Polish astronomer who spent 25 years tracking the movements of the sun, moon, and planets. He concluded that the sun, not Earth was the center of the universe.
Kepler Johannes Kepler, was a German astronomer that used mathematics to prove that the planets moved in predictable orbits. Kepler used math to show the Earth does revolve around the sun.
Galileo Galileo Galilei, was an Italian mathematician who discovered laws that describe the motion of objects on Earth. Contrary to the medieval view of the universe, Galileo showed that all heavenly objects did not revolve around the Earth. Church officials opposed Galileo’s work as contrary to official church teaching. Under threat of torture, the 70-year-old scientist denied his belief in a sun-centered universe.
Isaac Newton Isaac Newton, described the pull between objects mathematically in his law of gravity. This law states that the pull between two objects depends on two factors. One factor is the distance between the objects. The second is the amount of matter each object contains. Bigger objects have more pull than smaller ones. The law of gravity completed the revolution begun by Copernicus.
Bacon New approaches to developing knowledge; Francis Bacon, an English philosopher, championed the use of inductive reasoning in scientific investigations. A scientist guided by inductive reasoning uses observations and experiments to gather facts. Then, the scientist uses reason to reach a general conclusion based on these facts.
Descartes New approaches to developing knowledge Rene Descartes, a French philosopher, believed that to arrive at truth, it is necessary to doubt everything except ideas that were true beyond a doubt. From these basic truths, he argued, other things could be shown to be true using logic and reason. Descartes is famous for saying, “I think, therefore I am,” to prove his point.
Explores and Map Makers European nations sought an ocean route to Asia. In 1497, Vasco da Gama, from Portugal, became the first European to sail ships around the Cape of Good Hope, and then sail on to India.
Explores and Map Makers European nations sought an ocean route to Asia. Christopher Columbus, hoped to sail west to reach China. In 1492, he crossed the Atlantic ocean, headed west from Spain, and landed on an island in what is today the Bahamas. Columbus believed that he had reached lands just off the coast of China. He made four journeys west. His entire life he believed he had discovered route to Asia.
Explores and Map Makers European nations sought an ocean route to Asia. Amerigo Vespucci, an Italian navigator, concluded that the lands Columbus called “the Indies” were, in fact, part of a “New World,” in 1501. A German map maker named the newly encountered lands “America,” a Latin version of Vespucci’s first name.
Explores and Map Makers European nations sought an ocean route to Asia. Ferdinand Magellan, and his crew achieved the most difficult navigational feat of the age. Although he died on the journey, his crew circumnavigated, or sailed completely around the world in 1522.