Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Romans1

271 views

Published on

A brief understanding about Roman Republic and the architectural marvels created by them. Basics of Vitruvius concepts and D'Architectura

Published in: Art & Photos
  • Be the first to comment

Romans1

  1. 1. A.R 2.6 HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE - 1 1.Ancient Civilisations (Egypt, Mesopotamia & Indus) - pre summer break 2.Classical Greeks - pre summer break 3.The Roman Empire - 17 & 24 June 2016 4.The Rise of European World - 14 July 2016 5. Activity - 21 July 2016 6.Clash of Ideologies - 21 July 2016 7.Pre Industrial Revolution - 28 July 2016 8. Activity - 5 August 2016 LECTURE DATES
  2. 2. A.R 2.6 HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE - 1 1.Roman Architecture - grand scale of architecture, new materials & building technology, Public Infrastructure 2.Byzantine (300 AD - 1453 AD) 3.Early Christian (300 AD - 800 AD) 4.Romanesque (ranging from 6th to 10th century—1200 AD) 5.Gothic (1200AD - 1600 AD) 6.Renaissance (post crusades- 1800 AD) 7. Other Styles: Mannerist, Baroque, Jacobean,Victorian, Rococo etc. COURSE CONTENT: POST SUMMER BREAK
  3. 3. Date: 17 June 2016 Abhinand GopalTHE MAJESTIC ROMANS BUILDINGS OF THE ROMAN CIVILISATION
  4. 4. Paleolithic Age 2.6 million years ago 10,000 BC a period of repeated glaciations, use of most primitive tools covering 95% of humans (homo sapiens) history
  5. 5. World Map at 10000 years ago, after the melting of glaciers (start of Mesolithic age to 7000 BC) characterised by: movement of people from caves to plains, river valleys & coastal regions.
  6. 6. present day international boundaries showing countries in Europe
  7. 7. Italy: a country in the E. Mediterranean Sea made of small islands and having a long indented coastline
  8. 8. Neolithic Age (6800 BC - 2500BC): New Stone Age characterised with 1. introduction to agriculture practices 2. living in bands 3. domestication of animals
  9. 9. Bronze Age (2500 - 1250 BC) characterised with 1. metallurgy for art & warfare 2. establishment of social hierarchy 3. permanent houses
  10. 10. Iron Age (1250 - 1 AD) characterised by 1. gender & social bias 2. building marvels & technology 3. economic divide, military regimes & colonisation
  11. 11. Necessity to build new & grand structures?
  12. 12. physical map of Italy
  13. 13. Main political sub-divisions in Italy, a country of area 3 Lakh sq. kms with a population of 60 million people slightly lesser than the largest state of India, with a population of 78 million people
  14. 14. What is the first thing that comes to mind about Italy & Roman Empire other than gladiators & Italian food?
  15. 15. Organised crime in Italy Sicily
  16. 16. Florence
  17. 17. Venice
  18. 18. PLACES ITALY 1.Sicily 2.Rome 3.Florence 4.Pisa 5.Milan 6.Venice
  19. 19. NATURAL FACTORS GEOGRAPHY & CLIMATE ▸ Mediterranean climate. ▸ Unique geography with multiple variations ▸ Apennines running all along the peninsula ▸ Hot-Dry summers & Rainy- cool winters ▸ Mainly consists of the peninsula & the seas ▸ best climate in the world
  20. 20. ETRUSCAN SOCIETY PREDECESSORS OF ROMANS ▸ practised farming, fishing & trade ▸ lived in northern & central Italy ▸ believed in polytheism ▸ independent kingdoms ▸ built using wood, brick & terracotta ▸ nature worshippers
  21. 21. CERVETERI TOMBS, NEAR PRESENT DAY ROME BUILT BY ETRUSCANS IN 6TH CENTURY
  22. 22. Interior of the tomb, resembling the Egyptian practices, rituals & worship of the dead
  23. 23. Sarcophagus of the spouses, 6th century BC
  24. 24. ETRUSCAN PEOPLE EVOLVED FROM GREEK STYLE ▸ worship of multiple gods ▸ completely destroyed, studied by Vitruvius in 1st century BC with the help of foundations remaining ▸ plan similar to Greek style, ritual spaces created in groves.
  25. 25. ETRUSCAN TEMPLE PLAN VARIATIONS FROM THE GREEKS ▸ polychrome terracotta instead of marble columns of Greek temple ▸ rectangular in plan with wide spreading of the roof ▸ supported by columns only on the front side and not all around ▸ stylobate raised with only front steps ▸ marble was not used, built with timber, wood & travertine + tufa (limestone & sandstone found in Apennines) ▸ decorative elements on the roof ▸ planar columns without flutings
  26. 26. Greek Peristyle Temple Plan Etruscan Temple Plan
  27. 27. Porch PodiumEntrance columns cella Plan & Elevations Draw the Section!
  28. 28. TEMPLE OF MINERVA APULU OF VEII ▸ most famous Etruscan sculpture made out of terracotta ▸ lack of written records limits our understanding of aesthetics
  29. 29. But where did Rome come from?
  30. 30. BATTLE OF TROY - 1250 BC
  31. 31. Aeneas escapes from the fires of Troy along with a few survivors - his wife travels towards Britain, where his son Ascanius settles. Brute of Britain, the first king of Britain is born in their lineage.
  32. 32. CAPITOLINE WOLD FEEDING TWO YOUNG BABIES, WHO ESTABLISH THE ROMAN EMPIRE Aeneas arrives on the shores of Latium and establishes his family lineage. His descendant Nictor is killed by his brother and his male heirs were killed, while his grandchildren Romulus and Remus were thrown in river Tiber
  33. 33. development of Roman Republic- Imperial Empire between 500 BC to 300 AD
  34. 34. FACTORS INFLUENCING HUMAN SOCIETY & ARCHITECTURE ▸ natural factors - geography, geology, climate ▸ civilisation factors - history of the group, social structure,religion, building typologies & construction techniques
  35. 35. Roman Hierarchy
  36. 36. Jupiter: God of Sky; Juno: wide of Jupiter, councillor of Rome; Neptune: god of the Sea & horses; Minerva: daughter of Zeus & Hera; Apollon: Sun God; Diana: goddess of Hunting; Mars: God of War, Venus: Goddess of Love ROMANS WORSHIPPED A PANTHEON OF 12 GODS
  37. 37. Roman Gods derived from Greek Myths
  38. 38. The Macedonian Wars (214-148 BC) were a series of conflicts fought by the Roman Republic and its Greek allies in the eastern Mediterranean against several different major Greek kingdoms. They resulted in Roman control or influence over the eastern Mediterranean basin, in addition to their hegemony in the western Mediterranean after the Punic wars (264 - 146 BC)
  39. 39. CIVILISATION FACTORS REPUBLIC & MILITARY ▸ believed in polytheism ▸ primary worship of triad Gods ▸ managed the affairs of the Republic through represented officials ▸ change from military primitive army strategies which were successful on plains to the formation of legions, to fight in hilly regions. ▸ every citizen were given basic rights to raise up hierarchy if showed talent
  40. 40. acquired major territories from Macedonian Wars (against Greek states) & Punic Wars (against Carthage) Roman Republic (500 BC - 27 BC): establishment of Rome to rule of Augustus Caesar (known as Octavius Caesar), nephew of Julius Caesar Roman Empire (27 BC - 311AD): ruled in the name of Emperor till the split of Roman Empire into west & east empires. East headed by ‘Constantinople’ TIMELINE OF ROMAN CIVILIZATION
  41. 41. what did they possess to rule the vast territories?
  42. 42. MINERALS, COMMUNICATIONS & INFRASTRUCTURE
  43. 43. THINGS TO LEARN ABOUT ROMAN ARCHITECTURE - I ▸ Vitruvius Concepts ▸ Concepts of Arches- construction techniques ▸ Pantheon - plan, elevation, section, importance ▸ Column Orders: Composite & Tuscan ▸ Public Infrastructure: Roads, Aqueducts, Baths ▸ Communications & Defences ▸ Theatres & Entertainment Part 2: Lecture next week: 24 June
  44. 44. MINOR TIME ASSIGNMENT PLAN, ELEVATION & SECTION Visualise an ancient era and design a nobleman’s house in any of the following areas: 1. Greece 2. Egypt 3. Indus Valley Draw the following which would justify the climate, geography & culture of the place: A. Plan: to understand the various spaces & their FUNCTION B. Elevation: To understand the various BUILDING MATERIALS used in that period C. Section: to give a rough idea about the interiors, the tools used & extant of BEAUTY
  45. 45. Vitruvius explaining to Emperor Augustus about building public infrastructure using his own concepts
  46. 46. EARLIEST ARCHITECTURE THEORY IN PRACTICE MARCUS VITRUVIUS POLLIO born c. 80–70 BC, died after c. 15 BC commonly known as Vitruvius, was a Roman author, architect, civil engineer and military engineer during the 1st century BC, known for his multi-volume work entitled De architectura.
  47. 47. Archamedian Screw Principle
  48. 48. D’ ARCHITECTURA BEAUTY - STRUCTURE- FUNCTION ‣ first discusses the classical orders of the Greek civilisation ‣ the need for system of proportions ‣ "triad" of characteristics associated with architecture: utilitas, firmitas and venustas (commodity, firmness and delight) ‣ beauty (section): to understand aesthetics of the time ‣ structure (elevation): building materials used & construction technique ‣ function (plan): to understand the spaces better
  49. 49. in relation, where do you find these?
  50. 50. PROPORTIONS The lower section of text gives these proportions: • the length of the outspread arms is equal to the height of a man • from the hairline to the bottom of the chin is one-tenth of the height of a man • from below the chin to the top of the head is one-eighth of the height of a man • from above the chest to the top of the head is one-sixth of the height of a man • from above the chest to the hairline is one- seventh of the height of a man. • the maximum width of the shoulders is a quarter of the height of a man. • from the breasts to the top of the head is a quarter of the height of a man. • the distance from the elbow to the tip of the hand is a quarter of the height of a man. • the distance from the elbow to the armpit is one-eighth of the height of a man. • the length of the hand is one-tenth of the height of a man. • the root of the penis is at half the height of a man. • the foot is one-seventh of the height of a man. • from below the foot to below the knee is a quarter of the height of a man. • from below the knee to the root of the penis is a quarter of the height of a man. • the distances from below the chin to the nose and the eyebrows and the hairline are equal to the ears and to one-third of the face.
  51. 51. ‣ As the only treatise on architecture to survive from antiquity, it has been regarded since the Renaissance as the first book on architectural theory, as well as a major source on the canon of Classical Architecture
  52. 52. NEW BUILDING MATERIALS “AUGUSTUS CHANGED ROME FROM A CITY OF STONE TO MARBLE” ‣ The first use of concrete in Rome is credited to the discovery of Pozzolona sand near Naples ‣ It acts a cement for it’s binding properties
  53. 53. CONCEPT OF ARCHES
  54. 54. TEXT
  55. 55. CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUE
  56. 56. TEXT
  57. 57. PANTHEON: A GROUP OF 12 GODS Built by Agrippa in 0 BC, later destroyed due to fires in the city of Rome. Constructed by Emperor Hadrian in 126 AD
  58. 58. FIRE BAKED BRICKS, MORTAR, TERRACOTTA TILED ROOF & STRONG FOUNDATION "Marcus Agrippa, son of Lucius, made [this building] when consul for the third time."
  59. 59. OCULUS OF PANTHEON: LET THERE BE LIGHT
  60. 60. CAPITAL, SHAFT & BASE ELEMENTS IN A COLUMN
  61. 61. ROMAN COLUMNS DERIVED ELEMENTS FROM GREEKS
  62. 62. A TYPICAL DIAGRAM SHOWING A COLUMN ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTS OF CLASSICAL GREEK ARCHITECTURE ▸ Stylobate ▸ Column + Entablature ▸ Column: Base, Shaft, Capital ▸ Entablature: ▸ Pediment 1. Architrave 2. Frieze: Triglyph + Metope 3. Cornice
  63. 63. Draw the column details?
  64. 64. Sketches Required: Buildings of Roman Civilisation: 1. Map of Italy & major important cities/regions 2. Etruscan Temple: plan, elevation & section 3. Pantheon 4. Tuscan Order with details and compare analysis with Greek Column 5. Find out about Composite Order and draw the column with necessary details 6. Study briefly about the ten books of Architecture written by Vitruvius Mode of Submission: A3 sketch books Movies recommended for better visual understanding of Roman Civilisation: Gladiator, Rome (tv series), Spartacus, Ben Hur etc.
  65. 65. Date: 24 June 2016 Abhinand Gopal THE MAJESTIC ROMANS - II
  66. 66. TEXT
  67. 67. THE GREAT FIRE OF ROME 64 AD DISASTERS THAT STRUCK ROME
  68. 68. ERUPTION OF MOUNT VESUVIUS: POZOLLONA SOURCE
  69. 69. ROADS IN POMPEII
  70. 70. ROMAN ROAD IN SYRIA
  71. 71. ANCIENT ROMAN ROAD IN AFRICA
  72. 72. THINGS TO LEARN ABOUT ROMAN ARCHITECTURE - II ▸ Vitruvius Concepts ▸ Concepts of Arches & Vaults - construction techniques ▸ Pantheon - plan, elevation, section, importance ▸ Column Orders: Composite & Tuscan ▸ Public Infrastructure: Roads, Aqueducts, Baths ▸ Communications & Defences ▸ Theatres & Entertainment Part 2: Lecture next week: 15 July

×