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Transcript

  • 1. 5.1 Ions
  • 2. Ions
    • When atoms are in their pure form, they are neutral.
    • Neutral atoms can become charged by:
      • losing electrons
      • gaining electrons
    • When they do this they become IONS.
  • 3.
    • Atoms become ions by obeying the octet rule.
      • All atoms want a full outer shell.
      • A full outer shell = 8 electrons
    Octet Rule EXCEPTIONS H He Li Be B
  • 4. The elements are arranged in groups 1a 2a 3a 4a 5a 6a 7a 8a alkali metals halogens noble gases alkaline earth metals
  • 5. All elements want 8 e- in the valence shell to be stable. Group # # of valence electrons electrons lost or gained Ion Charge group 1 group 2 group 3 group 4 group 5 group 6 group 7 group 8 1e- 2e- 3e- 4e- 5e- 6e- 7e- 8e- lose 1 lose 3 lose 2 lose or gain 4 gain 3 gain 2 gain 1 nothing + 1 + 2 + 3 + or - 4 - 2 - 3 - 1 0
  • 6. Ion Formation Ca Ca 2e- 8e- 8e- 2e- 2e- 8e- 8e- 2e-
  • 7. Ionic Charge calcium before after 20 protons 20 electrons 20 protons 18 electrons +2 loss of electrons = positive charge
  • 8. Ion Formation N 2e- 5e- 3e- N 2e- 8e-
  • 9. Ionic charge nitrogen before after 7 protons 7 electrons 7 protons 10 electrons -3 gain of electrons = negative charge
  • 10. Naming Ions
    • Positive ions are Cations
    • Use the name of the element.
    • Negative ions are Anions
    • Use the root of the element, drop ending and add –”ide”.
    K +1 Ca +2 Al +3 Potassium ion Calcium ion Aluminum ion S -2 O -2 Br -1 N -3 Sulfide ion Oxide ion Bromide ion Nitride ion
  • 11. Homework
    • READ: pages 158-165
      • Be sure you understand the connection between orbitals and valence electrons!
    • Do: p.165 1-13