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The Periodic Table 
Sarah Jones
Atoms and Elements 
• All substances are made of ATOMS. 
• Substances that are made of only ONE type of 
atom are called E...
Elements 
• Elements are the building blocks of matter. 
• 118 known elements. 
He Helium 
H Hydrogen 
Au Gold 
N Nitrogen...
Image Source: http://www.periodictable.com/theelements/pages.html
The Structure of Atoms 
• Neutrons = neutral 
• Protons = positive charge 
• Electrons = negative charge 
www.wpclipart.co...
The Nucleus 
• At the centre of an atom. 
• Made up of protons and neutrons. 
• Neutrons are heavier than protons – both a...
Electron Shells 
• Electrons spin around the nucleus. They don't 
stay in defined areas around the nucleus. They 
are foun...
• Electrons are negative and attracted to the 
positive nucleus. 
• The number of electrons and protons is the 
same. 
Gal...
• The electrons spin around the nucleus in 
electron shells. 
• The closer the shell is to the nucleus the 
greater the at...
Maximum number of electrons = 2n2 
Shell Max. Number of Electrons 
n = 1 2 
n = 2 8 
n = 3 18 
n = 4 32
commons.wikimedia.org
The Periodic Table 
Elements arranged based on the similarities of 
their chemical and physical properties - colour, 
size...
www.ducksters.com
chemistry.about.com
Groups
• Groups are numbered 1-18 or an older way is 
I-VIII in Roman Numerals. 
• Using the group numbers 1-18 – the last digit ...
Periods
ignatius10science.weebly.com
Bonding 
• Atoms that are joined = molecules or large 
lattices. 
• These atoms are held together by chemical 
bonds. 
cat...
Group 18 of the periodic table are the noble 
gases – they are extremely stable and rarely 
bond with other atoms. 
common...
• All other atoms react, gain, lose or share 
electrons – result is a bond. 
• The result is particles with full outer she...
Ions 
• Ions are atoms that have become charged 
because they have had electrons removed – 
or because they have removed e...
• Positively charged ions (+) have more protons 
– lose electrons. 
• Negatively charged ions (-) have more 
electrons – g...
Metallic Bonding 
• Metal atoms only have a weak hold on their 
outer-shell electrons. 
• The outer-shell electrons can mo...
Opposite charges attract and the electrostatic 
force provides bonding between the positive 
ions and the loose electrons ...
Ionic Bonding 
• When metallic elements bond with non-metallic 
elements. 
• Metal atoms – weak hold on outer-shell 
elect...
• Electrostatic forces pull the +ve and –ve ions 
together to form a strong ionic bond. 
• Result in a three-dimensional s...
Covalent Bonding 
• When non-metallic atoms bond with each 
other. 
• Non-metals can’t remove electrons from other 
non-me...
Non-metals only share enough electrons to fill 
their outer-shell or have eight electrons in their 
outer-shell. 
www.duck...
Group 1 and 2 – Alkali Metals and 
Alkaline Earths 
Alkali metals form +1 ions, are too reactive to be 
found naturally in...
Alkaline Earth metals all react in a similar way – 
just slightly less reactive. 
http://periodictable.com/index.html
Group 14 
These elements display a wide range of 
properties. 
– non-metal carbon 
– metalloids silicon and germanium 
– m...
Group 17 – the Halogens 
• Atoms form ions with a charge of -1. 
• Are not found in nature in pure form – found 
in salts....
Group 18 – the Noble Gases 
• Colourless 
• Occur naturally in the atmosphere. 
• Incredibly stable and only react under e...
Transition Metals 
• Groups 3-12 
• Many of the most useful, colourful and 
valuable metals. 
• All tend to be relatively ...
The Periodic Table
The Periodic Table
The Periodic Table
The Periodic Table
The Periodic Table
The Periodic Table
The Periodic Table
The Periodic Table
The Periodic Table
The Periodic Table
The Periodic Table
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The Periodic Table

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Year 10 The Periodic Table - For additional resources visit: http://www.iheartscience.net

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The Periodic Table

  1. 1. vimeo.com The Periodic Table Sarah Jones
  2. 2. Atoms and Elements • All substances are made of ATOMS. • Substances that are made of only ONE type of atom are called ELEMENTS.
  3. 3. Elements • Elements are the building blocks of matter. • 118 known elements. He Helium H Hydrogen Au Gold N Nitrogen Pb Lead K Potassium
  4. 4. Image Source: http://www.periodictable.com/theelements/pages.html
  5. 5. The Structure of Atoms • Neutrons = neutral • Protons = positive charge • Electrons = negative charge www.wpclipart.com
  6. 6. The Nucleus • At the centre of an atom. • Made up of protons and neutrons. • Neutrons are heavier than protons – both are much heavier than electrons. • Atomic Number = Number of Protons
  7. 7. Electron Shells • Electrons spin around the nucleus. They don't stay in defined areas around the nucleus. They are found in clouds that can have different shapes. www.askamathematician.com
  8. 8. • Electrons are negative and attracted to the positive nucleus. • The number of electrons and protons is the same. Galleryhip.Com
  9. 9. • The electrons spin around the nucleus in electron shells. • The closer the shell is to the nucleus the greater the attraction. • Closer shells have lower energy levels and the outermost shells the highest energy level. Galleryhip.Com
  10. 10. Maximum number of electrons = 2n2 Shell Max. Number of Electrons n = 1 2 n = 2 8 n = 3 18 n = 4 32
  11. 11. commons.wikimedia.org
  12. 12. The Periodic Table Elements arranged based on the similarities of their chemical and physical properties - colour, size, density, freezing and boiling points. commons.wikimedia.org
  13. 13. www.ducksters.com
  14. 14. chemistry.about.com
  15. 15. Groups
  16. 16. • Groups are numbered 1-18 or an older way is I-VIII in Roman Numerals. • Using the group numbers 1-18 – the last digit is usually the number of electrons in the outer shell.
  17. 17. Periods
  18. 18. ignatius10science.weebly.com
  19. 19. Bonding • Atoms that are joined = molecules or large lattices. • These atoms are held together by chemical bonds. catalog.flatworldknowledge.com
  20. 20. Group 18 of the periodic table are the noble gases – they are extremely stable and rarely bond with other atoms. commons.wikimedia.org
  21. 21. • All other atoms react, gain, lose or share electrons – result is a bond. • The result is particles with full outer shells that hold eight electrons. www.allaboutcircuits.com
  22. 22. Ions • Ions are atoms that have become charged because they have had electrons removed – or because they have removed electrons from other atoms. • No longer neutral. www.gcsescience.com
  23. 23. • Positively charged ions (+) have more protons – lose electrons. • Negatively charged ions (-) have more electrons – gain electrons.
  24. 24. Metallic Bonding • Metal atoms only have a weak hold on their outer-shell electrons. • The outer-shell electrons can move throughout the metal without being bound to any one atom. • Each metal atom becomes a positively charged ion. commons.wikimedia.org
  25. 25. Opposite charges attract and the electrostatic force provides bonding between the positive ions and the loose electrons surrounding them. www.bbc.co.uk
  26. 26. Ionic Bonding • When metallic elements bond with non-metallic elements. • Metal atoms – weak hold on outer-shell electrons. • Non-metallic atoms – strong hold on outer-shell electrons. • Non-metallic tend to remove outer-shell electrons from any metal atoms they are near. chemistry.tutorvista.com
  27. 27. • Electrostatic forces pull the +ve and –ve ions together to form a strong ionic bond. • Result in a three-dimensional structure called a lattice. en.wikibooks.org
  28. 28. Covalent Bonding • When non-metallic atoms bond with each other. • Non-metals can’t remove electrons from other non-metals. • They share some of their outer-shell electrons and form covalent bonds. chemwiki.ucdavis.edu
  29. 29. Non-metals only share enough electrons to fill their outer-shell or have eight electrons in their outer-shell. www.ducksters.com
  30. 30. Group 1 and 2 – Alkali Metals and Alkaline Earths Alkali metals form +1 ions, are too reactive to be found naturally in pure form, have typical metal properties, display similar chemical behaviour, react violently with water producing an alkaline solution and hydrogen gas. http://periodictable.com/index.html
  31. 31. Alkaline Earth metals all react in a similar way – just slightly less reactive. http://periodictable.com/index.html
  32. 32. Group 14 These elements display a wide range of properties. – non-metal carbon – metalloids silicon and germanium – metallic tin and lead http://periodictable.com/index.html
  33. 33. Group 17 – the Halogens • Atoms form ions with a charge of -1. • Are not found in nature in pure form – found in salts. • Get bigger and less reactive as you move down the group. • All form molecules of two atoms. • Have coloured and poisonous vapours. http://periodictable.com/index.html
  34. 34. Group 18 – the Noble Gases • Colourless • Occur naturally in the atmosphere. • Incredibly stable and only react under extreme circumstances. http://periodictable.com/index.html
  35. 35. Transition Metals • Groups 3-12 • Many of the most useful, colourful and valuable metals. • All tend to be relatively hard with high melting points. http://periodictable.com/index.html

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