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# The Periodic Table

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Year 10 The Periodic Table - For additional resources visit: http://www.iheartscience.net

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### The Periodic Table

1. 1. vimeo.com The Periodic Table Sarah Jones
2. 2. Atoms and Elements • All substances are made of ATOMS. • Substances that are made of only ONE type of atom are called ELEMENTS.
3. 3. Elements • Elements are the building blocks of matter. • 118 known elements. He Helium H Hydrogen Au Gold N Nitrogen Pb Lead K Potassium
4. 4. Image Source: http://www.periodictable.com/theelements/pages.html
5. 5. The Structure of Atoms • Neutrons = neutral • Protons = positive charge • Electrons = negative charge www.wpclipart.com
6. 6. The Nucleus • At the centre of an atom. • Made up of protons and neutrons. • Neutrons are heavier than protons – both are much heavier than electrons. • Atomic Number = Number of Protons
7. 7. Electron Shells • Electrons spin around the nucleus. They don't stay in defined areas around the nucleus. They are found in clouds that can have different shapes. www.askamathematician.com
8. 8. • Electrons are negative and attracted to the positive nucleus. • The number of electrons and protons is the same. Galleryhip.Com
9. 9. • The electrons spin around the nucleus in electron shells. • The closer the shell is to the nucleus the greater the attraction. • Closer shells have lower energy levels and the outermost shells the highest energy level. Galleryhip.Com
10. 10. Maximum number of electrons = 2n2 Shell Max. Number of Electrons n = 1 2 n = 2 8 n = 3 18 n = 4 32
11. 11. commons.wikimedia.org
12. 12. The Periodic Table Elements arranged based on the similarities of their chemical and physical properties - colour, size, density, freezing and boiling points. commons.wikimedia.org
13. 13. www.ducksters.com
15. 15. Groups
16. 16. • Groups are numbered 1-18 or an older way is I-VIII in Roman Numerals. • Using the group numbers 1-18 – the last digit is usually the number of electrons in the outer shell.
17. 17. Periods
18. 18. ignatius10science.weebly.com
19. 19. Bonding • Atoms that are joined = molecules or large lattices. • These atoms are held together by chemical bonds. catalog.flatworldknowledge.com
20. 20. Group 18 of the periodic table are the noble gases – they are extremely stable and rarely bond with other atoms. commons.wikimedia.org
21. 21. • All other atoms react, gain, lose or share electrons – result is a bond. • The result is particles with full outer shells that hold eight electrons. www.allaboutcircuits.com
22. 22. Ions • Ions are atoms that have become charged because they have had electrons removed – or because they have removed electrons from other atoms. • No longer neutral. www.gcsescience.com
23. 23. • Positively charged ions (+) have more protons – lose electrons. • Negatively charged ions (-) have more electrons – gain electrons.
24. 24. Metallic Bonding • Metal atoms only have a weak hold on their outer-shell electrons. • The outer-shell electrons can move throughout the metal without being bound to any one atom. • Each metal atom becomes a positively charged ion. commons.wikimedia.org
25. 25. Opposite charges attract and the electrostatic force provides bonding between the positive ions and the loose electrons surrounding them. www.bbc.co.uk
26. 26. Ionic Bonding • When metallic elements bond with non-metallic elements. • Metal atoms – weak hold on outer-shell electrons. • Non-metallic atoms – strong hold on outer-shell electrons. • Non-metallic tend to remove outer-shell electrons from any metal atoms they are near. chemistry.tutorvista.com
27. 27. • Electrostatic forces pull the +ve and –ve ions together to form a strong ionic bond. • Result in a three-dimensional structure called a lattice. en.wikibooks.org
28. 28. Covalent Bonding • When non-metallic atoms bond with each other. • Non-metals can’t remove electrons from other non-metals. • They share some of their outer-shell electrons and form covalent bonds. chemwiki.ucdavis.edu
29. 29. Non-metals only share enough electrons to fill their outer-shell or have eight electrons in their outer-shell. www.ducksters.com
30. 30. Group 1 and 2 – Alkali Metals and Alkaline Earths Alkali metals form +1 ions, are too reactive to be found naturally in pure form, have typical metal properties, display similar chemical behaviour, react violently with water producing an alkaline solution and hydrogen gas. http://periodictable.com/index.html
31. 31. Alkaline Earth metals all react in a similar way – just slightly less reactive. http://periodictable.com/index.html
32. 32. Group 14 These elements display a wide range of properties. – non-metal carbon – metalloids silicon and germanium – metallic tin and lead http://periodictable.com/index.html
33. 33. Group 17 – the Halogens • Atoms form ions with a charge of -1. • Are not found in nature in pure form – found in salts. • Get bigger and less reactive as you move down the group. • All form molecules of two atoms. • Have coloured and poisonous vapours. http://periodictable.com/index.html
34. 34. Group 18 – the Noble Gases • Colourless • Occur naturally in the atmosphere. • Incredibly stable and only react under extreme circumstances. http://periodictable.com/index.html
35. 35. Transition Metals • Groups 3-12 • Many of the most useful, colourful and valuable metals. • All tend to be relatively hard with high melting points. http://periodictable.com/index.html