Bonding

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  • atoms
  • Bonding

    1. 1. At the end of this lesson we will be able tounderstand :-Why an atom gets bonded with other atom oratoms.Different types of solids depending upon type of bonding between their particles.Properties of different solids.
    2. 2. Group zero elementsElement Electronic Behavior of configuration atoms 2He4 2 Helium atoms do not bond 10Ne20 2,8 Neon atoms do not bond 18Ar40 2 ,8, 8 Argon atoms do not bond
    3. 3. Argon: 18Ar40 Third shell : 8 electrons Second shell : 8 electrons First shell: 2electrons NucleusEach shell is full .
    4. 4. Magnesium :12 Mg24 Third shell : 2 electrons Second shell : 8 electrons First shell ; 2 electrons NucleusOuter shell not full : only 2 electrons in it
    5. 5. Now I am sure you can tell methat why bonding takes place between two atoms. Press Enter to continue
    6. 6. Types of solids Depending on the type of bonding solids are of Four types – Molecular solids Macromolecular solids Metallic solids Ionic solids
    7. 7. Iodine : a molecular solid I I Two atoms of iodine I I Two atoms bonding together
    8. 8. I I Two Iodine atoms
    9. 9. A covalent bond between two Iodine atoms is formed I I I-I An Iodine molecule
    10. 10. I I I I I I I IA Collection of iodine atoms Iodine molecules, full shells
    11. 11. Carbon (diamond) : a macromolecular solid C C C C CCarbon is in IV group –each atom has 4 outer shell electron
    12. 12. C C C C CCentral carbon atom now has a full outer shell
    13. 13. Carbon latticeThe whole lattice is held together by covalent bonds.These are strong forces of attraction, so a considerableamount of energy is needed to break up the lattice.
    14. 14. Lattice of iodine moleculesThe forces of attraction between molecules is weak ,however – they all have full shells – so lattice is easilybroken up.
    15. 15. Sodium : a metallic solid sodium atom Na Removed sodium ion Na+ electron11 protons, 11 electrons: neutral 11 protons, 10 electrons:+ charged
    16. 16. Metallic Bonding repulsion Metal ion attraction- Delocalized electron
    17. 17. Force appliedMetals are malleable and ductile : they can bebent , shaped and drawn into wires.
    18. 18. Metals conduct electricity welldelocalized electrons moving though the lattice carryingnegative charge
    19. 19. Metals conduct heat well COLD ENDHOT END ELECTRONS ELECTRONS MOVING QUICKLY MOVING SLOWLY
    20. 20. Salt : an ionic solid atoms ions + Na Na - Cl Cl
    21. 21. Electrovalent bond between cat ions and anions cat ion anion
    22. 22. Force applied repelAlthough ionic solids are hard , they are brittle. Theyshatter when hit by a hammer.
    23. 23. electrode electrode + - + - + - + - + - + + - + - + - + - solvent particles
    24. 24. Summary• Properties of a solid depend on the type of particle in the lattice & the way in which they attract each other in the lattice.• There are three types of bonding – covalent bonding, metallic bonding, ionic bonding .• In all these bonding, the atoms achieve full electron shells .• An ion is a particle which has gained or lost electrons, so is charged .

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