Woody Plants Group 7b


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  • Woody Plants Group 7b

    1. 1. Conifer ID
    2. 2. First Year Ponderosa Pine Seedling Germinated in Spring Growth at the end of summer – maybe 12” or so
    3. 3. One Year Old – The following spring Candles forming in May/June
    4. 4. One Year Old – Candles have expanded by July/August
    5. 5. Two Years Old – May/June Next set of candles are forming
    6. 6. Two Years Old – July/August Candles have expanded Oldest growth loses its needles
    7. 7. Three types of conifers based on foliage structure: Single needles – Spruce/Fir Bundle of needles - Pine Scaled foliage – Juniper/ Arborvitae Oregon State University
    8. 8. <ul><li>Sample #1 – Spruce - should be the one that rolls easiest. </li></ul><ul><li>Square – cross section – like a wooden match. </li></ul><ul><li>Now, grab the branch in your hands – sharp – pointed ends </li></ul><ul><li>“ pungens” means sharp </li></ul><ul><li>Take another needle off this sample. Hold it between your thumb and forefinger. Bend it. It should snap in half. Breaks easily. Stiff. </li></ul><ul><li>Pull another needle off and this time pay attention to the point on the stem where you took the needle off. Can you see that a little peg, or stalk, remains on the stem? </li></ul><ul><li>Also, notice how the needles spiral all the way around the stem, like the spokes of a wheel. All sides of the stem are covered with needles. </li></ul>
    9. 9. Spruce: Single Square Sharp Stiff Stalked Spiral
    10. 10. <ul><li>Spruce buds </li></ul><ul><li>Golden tan, rounded, the scales peel back like an open cone. </li></ul><ul><li>Not so much in the fall, but after the holidays, is when you begin to notice this ‘rosette’ shape to the buds </li></ul>
    11. 11. Colorado Spruce – cones usually at top of tree University of Wisconsin
    12. 12. Oregon State University Colorado Spruce cone
    13. 13. <ul><li>They’re usually large, papery or woody. </li></ul><ul><li>When seeds are mature, 1 to 2 years, depending on the genus and species, they fall from the cone. With the cone up near the top of the tree, the seeds will fall farther from the base of the parent tree, giving the seed more room to germinate, away from it’s parent. </li></ul><ul><li>Male pollen cones are usually toward the bottom of the tree. They’re usually small, papery and short-lived, disintegrating once the pollen has been dispersed. </li></ul><ul><li>Conifers are wind pollinated. Wind currents blow the male pollen away from the parent tree to the cones at the top of another tree close by so that it’s own tree is not self-pollinated. Makes for a stronger, more diverse forest. </li></ul><ul><li>Spruce cones are 2” – 4” long; with papery, thin scales. </li></ul><ul><li>Irregularly notched edges to scales. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Compare pungens to engelmann <ul><li>Engelmann Spruce is the other native spruce - compared to Colorado Spruce… </li></ul><ul><li>Engelmann usually not blue </li></ul><ul><li>Base of needle and young branch slightly hairy </li></ul><ul><li>Needles not as sharp as CO Spruce </li></ul><ul><li>Tips are more blunt – not as sharp </li></ul><ul><li>Cones are smaller – 1-2” </li></ul><ul><li>Grows at a higher elevation – 9,000’ to timberline </li></ul><ul><li>Engelmann can live at temperatures 50 degrees below zero. </li></ul><ul><li>Also quite long-lived – 400 years old at maturity </li></ul>
    15. 15. Colorado Spruce Engelmann Spruce Iowa State University
    16. 16. Dwarf Alberta Spruce (in Oregon!) Oregon State University Not a native – is cultivated. Dense growth conical very slow grower 1” – 2” per year As a rule, if a plant has slow growth, it’ll have dense foliage. Fast growth – loose, open form.
    17. 17. Fir <ul><li>Pull a needle off – flat – not square in cross section </li></ul><ul><li>Another needle – try to bend – doesn’t snap as easily – flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Grasp the branch in your hands – not as sharp – soft as “fir” – “friendly” </li></ul><ul><li>Needle not stalked – no peg – the needle leaves a round, flat leaf scar. </li></ul><ul><li>Needles are usually longer than spruce – 1” – 3” </li></ul><ul><li>White Fir needles usually are retained on the tree for 7-10 years. </li></ul>
    18. 18. <ul><li>Needles point up – they usually don’t spiral around the whole branch. </li></ul><ul><li>They reach ‘fir’ the sky. </li></ul>
    19. 19. White Fir buds – rounded, tan Oregon State University <ul><li>Buds are round and tan like Spruce buds, but they resemble a closed cone instead of an open cone. Bud scales don’t peel back. </li></ul>
    20. 20. White Fir cones Abies concolor <ul><li>Cones are at the top of the tree, but instead of hanging down, they point straight up, reaching ‘fir’ the sky. </li></ul>
    21. 21. Fir: Flat Friendly –soft as “Fir” Flexible “ Fir” the sky – cones/needles point up
    22. 22. Douglas Fir <ul><li>False Hemlock” pseudo – false; tsuga – hemlock </li></ul><ul><li>Not a fir, and not a hemlock. It’s own genus. Has a lot of the “fir’ characteristics: </li></ul><ul><li>Flat, Friendly, Flexible. </li></ul><ul><li>But needles are shorter than white fir, 1” or less. </li></ul><ul><li>Groove down the center of the needle. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf scar is slightly raised, and smaller than the white fir leaf scar. </li></ul><ul><li>Cones – very diagnostic. They hang down, and fall off the tree intact. </li></ul><ul><li>3-lobed bracts – like tiny mice hiding under each scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Cones are all over the tree – upper and lower branches . </li></ul>
    23. 23. Douglasfir female cones and pointed buds Oregon State University
    24. 24. Blue Spruce University of Connecticut Douglasfir University of Connecticut White Fir University of Wisconsin
    25. 25. Woody Plants Group 7 <ul><li>Abies concolor </li></ul><ul><li>Abies lasiocarpa </li></ul><ul><li>Picea abies </li></ul><ul><li>Picea engelmanii </li></ul><ul><li>Picea pungens var. glauca </li></ul><ul><li>Pseudotsuga menziesii </li></ul><ul><li>Concolor Fir </li></ul><ul><li>Subalpine Fir </li></ul><ul><li>Norway Spruce </li></ul><ul><li>Engelmann Spruce </li></ul><ul><li>Colorado Blue Spruce </li></ul><ul><li>Douglas Fir </li></ul>
    26. 26. Abies concolor
    27. 27. Foliage flat Leaf scar is round White Fir Abies concolor University of Wisconsin Pull a needle off – flat – not square in cross section Another needle – try to bend – doesn’t snap as easily – flexible Grasp the branch in your hands – not as sharp – soft as “fir” – “friendly” Needle not stalked – no peg – the needle leaves a round, flat leaf scar. Needles are usually longer than spruce – 1” – 3” White Fir needles usually are retained on the tree for 7-10 years.
    28. 28. Abies leaf scars
    29. 30. Needles point up – they usually don’t spiral around the whole branch. They reach ‘fir’ the sky.
    30. 31. Needles are the same color (concolor) top and bottom
    31. 32. Fruit/cones <ul><li>brown cones, green when immature </li></ul><ul><li>cylindrical </li></ul><ul><li>4&quot; to 5&quot; long </li></ul><ul><li>cones shatter when mature </li></ul><ul><li>cones borne on the upper third of the tree </li></ul>
    32. 33. Fir <ul><li>Flat </li></ul><ul><li>Friendly –soft as “Fir” </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible </li></ul><ul><li>“ Fir” the sky – cones/needles point up </li></ul>
    33. 34. ID Abies concolor <ul><li>ID Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>needles are similar in color on top and bottom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(concolor) = same color </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>unlike most Firs, which have solid green or blue upper surfaces, and striped silvery lower surfaces (the stomatic lines </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>smooth bark with resin blisters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needles longer than spruce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>resinous buds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large cones held upright </li></ul></ul>
    34. 35. Abies lasiocarpa Subalpine Fir <ul><li>Thin gray bark and flat smooth needles distinguish the Subalpine Fir. </li></ul><ul><li>A longitudinal crease runs the length of the needle, </li></ul><ul><li>as is true for all firs, cones project upward from the top side of branches </li></ul>
    35. 36. Abies lasciocarpa Form <ul><li>When mature 40 to 100 feet tall and 1 to 2 feet in diameter. </li></ul><ul><li>Very narrow crown of dense foliage </li></ul><ul><li>often spire-like with branches to the ground </li></ul>http://www.cnr.vt.edu/dendro/dendrology/syllabus/picts/alasiocarpaform.jpg
    36. 37. Abies lasiocarpa <ul><li>Flower: Monoecious; male cones bluish and borne beneath the leaves; female cones purple and borne upright near the top of the crown. Fruit: Cones are 2 to 4 inches long, cylindrical, slender, and borne upright on the twig (frequently in clusters); cone scales are deciduous, falling from the cone as seeds ripen; purple when mature. </li></ul>
    37. 38. Abies lasiocarpa
    38. 39. Abies lasiocarpa
    39. 40. Abies lasiocarpa
    40. 41. Abies lasiocarpa Bark When young, grayish green and covered with resin blisters; later turning gray to white, unbroken except near base of large trees. Resin pockets scattered throughout inner bark.
    41. 42. Abies lasciocarpa needles <ul><li>Flattened needles, usually about 1 inch long, thickened in the middle, bluish white bloom on all surfaces; </li></ul><ul><li>tips mostly rounded, but may be notched (or pointed near top of tree); </li></ul><ul><li>spirally arranged but uniformly upswept </li></ul><ul><li>commonly have a manicured appearance. </li></ul>
    42. 43. Abies lasiocarpa
    43. 44. Abies lasciocarpa Twig <ul><li>Stiff, orange-brown, and covered with round, flat leaf scars when needles fall. </li></ul><ul><li>Buds are small, rounded, and covered with pitch </li></ul><ul><li>terminal buds usually occur in clusters of three or more </li></ul>
    44. 46. Picea pegs and leaf scars
    45. 47. Picea abies Norway Spruce
    46. 48. Dark <ul><li>Form: A medium to large tree with conical form capable of reaching over 120 feet tall </li></ul><ul><li>with horizontal to upward sweeping branches that often droop branchlets </li></ul>
    47. 50. Picea abies flowers <ul><li>Monoecious; males yellow-brown in large groups; </li></ul><ul><li>females upright, purple </li></ul>
    48. 51. Picea abies <ul><li>ID Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>large evergreen tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>long narrow cones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>needles leave petiole on stem when pulled off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stiff pointed needles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adelgid galls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>long pendulous branchlets </li></ul></ul>
    49. 52. Picea abies Fruit <ul><li>Cones are very large, cylindrical, 4 to 6 inches long </li></ul><ul><li>stiff, thin scales that are irregularly toothed </li></ul><ul><li>chestnut brown, maturing in fall </li></ul>
    50. 53. Picea abies Needle <ul><li>Evergreen needles </li></ul><ul><li>stiff, 1/2 to 1 inch long </li></ul><ul><li>4-angled but somewhat flattened </li></ul><ul><li>sharp pointed tip, shiny deep green. </li></ul><ul><li>Each needle borne on a raised, woody peg (sterigma </li></ul>
    51. 54. Picea abies Bark <ul><li>Twig: Slender to medium in size, lacking hair, shiny orangish brown; needles are borne on woody pegs; buds with very loose, orange-brown scales (resembles a rose). Bark: Red-brown and scaly, later turning gray with flaking scales or plates. </li></ul>
    52. 55. Picea engelmanii Engelman Spruce <ul><li>evergreen tree </li></ul><ul><li>large, narrowly pyramidal tree with ascending branches </li></ul><ul><li>40' to 50' tall, but can reach heights of over 100' </li></ul><ul><li>medium texture </li></ul><ul><li>best in well-drained, loamy, organic soils </li></ul><ul><li>prefers acidic soils </li></ul><ul><li>full sun </li></ul>
    53. 57. Picea engelmanii <ul><li>needles are densely packed and glaucous blue in color </li></ul><ul><li>needles are four-sided, about 1&quot; long </li></ul><ul><li>needles have rank odor when crushed </li></ul>
    54. 58. Picea engelmanii
    55. 59. Picea engelmanii Flowers <ul><li>Monoecious; male flowers cylindrical, purple and hanging in lower crown, females cylindrical, red and upright in the upper crown </li></ul>
    56. 60. Picea engelmanii <ul><li>cones found at the ends of branches </li></ul><ul><li>mature cones are ovoid; 1&quot; to 3&quot; long by 1&quot; wide </li></ul><ul><li>pale tan color </li></ul><ul><li>cone scales have irregularly toothed margins </li></ul>
    57. 61. Picea engelmanii
    58. 62. Picea engelmanii
    59. 63. Picea engelmanii Bark <ul><li>red-brown color </li></ul><ul><li>thin loose scales </li></ul>
    60. 64. Picea pungens Blue Spruce
    61. 65. Picea pungens
    62. 68. Cooley Spruce Gall Adelgid
    63. 69. Picea pungens <ul><li>ID Features </li></ul><ul><ul><li>large, narrow, evergreen tree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>long cones with wavy scales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>needles leave petiole on stem when pulled off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>needles that are 4-sided </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>green to blue-green color </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stem tip dieback from spruce gall aphid </li></ul></ul>
    64. 71. Picea comparison Hairless/ tan Hairs; brown Hairless, shiny orangish brown Twig Reflexed wavy Thin, irregular teeth Cone scales Scatter throughout tree Lower crown Yellow brown, large groups Male flowers 2-4” 1.5-3” 4-6” Cone .75-1.25” 1” .5-1” length Silver blue/ dark green very sharp Bluish green Deep green color pungens engelmanii abies
    65. 72. Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas Fir <ul><li>Flower: Males oblong red to yellow near the branch tips, females reddish with long bracts near the branch tips </li></ul><ul><li>Fruit – 3 to 4 in long with rounded scales. A three lobed bracts ‘mouse rear-end’ </li></ul><ul><li>Twig: slender, red-brown, pointed red brown buds </li></ul><ul><li>Bark: smooth & gray on young, red-brown with ridges and deep furrows on mature trees </li></ul><ul><li>Pyramidal crown, stems are straight, loose habit </li></ul><ul><li>Moist, well drained slightly acidic soil </li></ul>
    66. 74. Queen Fir – one of the largest know Douglas Fir are second largest pine tree http://www.botanik.uni-bonn.de/conifers/pi/ps/menziesii.htm
    67. 75. <ul><li>Closeup of the underside of a sun foliage shoot of P. menziesii , showing pollen cone buds and the manner of leaf attachment to the twig </li></ul>
    68. 76. Pseudotsuga menziesii <ul><li>Single needles, yellow green to blue green ¾ to ¼ in long, very fragrant, blunt or slightly rounded tips, in two rows (V shaped) </li></ul>
    69. 80. Immature seed cone and active pollen cones on a shoot of var. menziesii
    70. 81. Id from Photographs
    71. 82. Entire Tree
    72. 86. Leaf
    73. 92. Fruit
    74. 93. species
    75. 94. species