3 Abiotic Diagnosis Nutritional Deficiencies New


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  • 3 Abiotic Diagnosis Nutritional Deficiencies New

    1. 1. Abiotic Diagnosis Nutritional Deficiencies
    2. 2. Abiotic Diseases <ul><li>Abiotic Diseases are cause by non-living agents </li></ul><ul><li>Extremes of temperature and water supply are the most common causes </li></ul><ul><li>Other causes are chemical substances in the soil, water, and air; transplant shock; and mechanical injuries </li></ul>
    3. 3. Abiotic Diseases <ul><li>Often weaken the plant </li></ul><ul><li>Enabling living agents such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, nematodes, and insects to attack and injure or kill the tree </li></ul><ul><li>May resemble those produced by insects or fungi </li></ul><ul><li>If no signs of these organisms are present, the plant may have been affected by an abiotic agent </li></ul>
    4. 4. Nutritional Deficiencies- Older Leaves First <ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Potassium </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium </li></ul>
    5. 5. Nitrogen Deficiency <ul><li>Restricted growth tops and roots - especially lateral shoots </li></ul><ul><li>Spindly with chlorosis of entire plant to a light green </li></ul><ul><li>Yellowing of older leaves which proceeds toward younger leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Older leaves defoliate early </li></ul>
    6. 6. Nitrogen Deficiency in Greenhouse Crops <ul><li>Older leaves uniformly chlorotic </li></ul><ul><li>Older leaves become necrotic </li></ul><ul><li>Purple to red discoloration may develop in older leaves as they turn chlorotic in some species such as begonia, marigold, and pansy. </li></ul>
    7. 7. Nitrogen Deficiency
    8. 8.                                                                                  <>
    9. 9. Phosphorus Deficiency <ul><li>Stunted </li></ul><ul><li>Exceptionally dark green </li></ul><ul><li>Often red or purple colors appearing </li></ul><ul><li>lower leaves yellow. </li></ul><ul><li>purpling of petioles and the veins on underside of younger leaves </li></ul>
    10. 10. Phosphorus Deficiency <ul><li>Younger leaves may be yellowish green with purple veins with N deficiency and darker green with P deficiency </li></ul><ul><li>Otherwise, N and P deficiencies are very much alike. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Phosphorus Deficiency
    12. 12. Phosphorus Deficiency in Greenhouse Crops <ul><li>Roots become longer than normal when the deficiency is moderate </li></ul><ul><li>Foliage plants: older leaves may lose their sheen, becoming dull green followed by red, yellow, and blue pigments showing through the green particularly on the undersides of the leaves along the veins </li></ul><ul><li>These symptoms spread across the leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Older leaves abscise if possible, otherwise necrosis develops from the tip towards the base. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Potassium Deficiency <ul><li>Pale brown to black leaf scorch </li></ul><ul><li>preceded by irregular marginal or interveinal chlorosis </li></ul><ul><li>leaves cupped </li></ul><ul><li>Margins of older leaves become chlorotic followed by an immediate necrosis </li></ul><ul><li>Similar necrotic spots may form across the blades of older leaves but more so towards the margin </li></ul><ul><li>Soon the older leaves become totally necrotic </li></ul><ul><li>Some foliage plants will develop oily spots on the undersides of older leaves, that then become necrotic. </li></ul>
    14. 14. Potassium Deficiency
    15. 15. Magnesium Deficiency <ul><li>Interveinal chlorosis </li></ul><ul><li>persistent green margin of leaf </li></ul><ul><li>yellow patches </li></ul><ul><li>brown necrotic areas </li></ul><ul><li>Appearance of brilliant orange, red or purple tints </li></ul>
    16. 16. Magnesium Deficiency
    17. 17. Magnesium Deficiency in Greenhouse Crops <ul><li>In several species pink, red, or purple pigmentation will develop in the older leaves follow </li></ul><ul><li>Foliage plants with pinnately (netted) veined leaves: Bronze-yellow chlorosis begins at the upper margin of older leaves progressing downward along the veins leaving a green v-shape pattern at the top of the leaf </li></ul><ul><li>As chlorosis progresses down the leaf a green v-shape of tissue remains at the bottom </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually the tip and then the base become chlorotic. Necrosis follows chlorosis in the same pattern </li></ul>
    18. 18. Nutritional Deficiencies – Younger Leaves First <ul><li>Iron </li></ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul><ul><li>Boron </li></ul><ul><li>Sulfur </li></ul><ul><li>Copper </li></ul><ul><li>Manganese </li></ul><ul><li>Zinc </li></ul><ul><li>Molybdenum </li></ul>
    19. 19. Iron Deficiency <ul><li>Uniform chlorosis of younger leaves </li></ul><ul><li>veins remain darker green </li></ul>
    20. 20. Iron Deficiency in Greenhouse Crops <ul><li>Interveinal chlorosis of young leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Young leaves of seedlings sometimes develop general rather than interveinal chlorosis </li></ul><ul><li>In late stages, the leaf blade may loose nearly all pigment taking on a white appearance . </li></ul>
    21. 21. Calcium Deficiency <ul><li>Terminal buds die </li></ul><ul><li>distortion and necrosis of young leaves </li></ul><ul><li>die back at tips and margins </li></ul><ul><li>Root tips gelatinous and swollen . </li></ul>
    22. 22. Calcium Deficiency
    23. 23. Calcium Deficiency in Greenhouse Crops <ul><li>Young leaves may develop variable patterns of chlorosis and distortion such as dwarfing, strap-like shape, or crinkling </li></ul><ul><li>The edges of leaves may become necrotic </li></ul><ul><li>Shoots stop growing </li></ul><ul><li>Petals or flower stems may collapse </li></ul><ul><li>Roots are short, thickened, and branched </li></ul><ul><li>Foliage plants: in addition to the above, the older leaves may become thick and brittle. </li></ul>
    24. 24. Boron Deficiency <ul><li>Young leaves light green-yellow at base </li></ul><ul><li>die back of terminal bud </li></ul><ul><li>leaves misshapen, thick, brittle and small </li></ul><ul><li>Cracks and splits occur in petioles and stems </li></ul><ul><li>Root tips enlarged </li></ul>
    25. 25. Boron Deficiency
    26. 26. Boron Deficiency in Greenhouse crops <ul><li>Incomplete formation of flower parts such as fewer petals, small petals, sudden wilting or collapse of petals, and notches of tissue missing in flower stems, leaf petioles, or stems </li></ul><ul><li>Death of the bud </li></ul><ul><li>Witch’s Broom </li></ul><ul><li>Short internodes, crinkling of young leaves, corking of young leaves, stems, and buds, thickening of young leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Chlorosis of young leaves but not in any definite pattern </li></ul>
    27. 27. Boron Deficiency in Greenhouse crops <ul><li>Roots short and thick with eventual death of root tips. </li></ul><ul><li>Additional symptoms in foliage plants can include brittle stems and leaves, necrotic spots (black and sunken) on stems just below nodes </li></ul><ul><li>nodal roots on vine plants may become thick and short and abscise, and vines may become highly curled at the nodes. </li></ul>
    28. 28. Sulfur Deficiency <ul><li>Decreased leaf size </li></ul><ul><li>pale green-yellow leaves </li></ul><ul><li>shortened internodes </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf veins become chlorotic. </li></ul>
    29. 29. Sulfur Deficiency in Greenhouse Crops <ul><li>Foliage over the entire plant becomes uniformly chlorotic </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes the symptoms tend to be more pronounced toward the top of the plant </li></ul><ul><li>While symptoms on the individual leaf look like those of nitrogen deficiency, it is easy to distinguish sulfur deficiency from nitrogen deficiency because nitrogen deficiency begins in the lowest leaves. </li></ul>
    30. 30. Copper Deficiency <ul><li>Young leaves permanently wilted </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves rolled or curled </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging leaves often trapped in subtended leaves </li></ul><ul><li>Pollen cells often sterile </li></ul>
    31. 31. Copper Deficiency in Greenhouse Crops <ul><li>Young leaves develop interveinal chlorosis </li></ul><ul><li>however, the tips and lobes of these leaves may remain green </li></ul><ul><li>Next, the youngest fully expanded leaves rapidly become necrotic </li></ul><ul><li>The sudden death of these leaves resembles desiccation </li></ul>
    32. 33. Manganese Deficiency <ul><li>Chlorosis often interveinal </li></ul><ul><li>produces a bold pattern of dark green major veins </li></ul><ul><li>Unlike iron, necrotic spotting or lesions appear on affected leaves </li></ul><ul><li>These may be brown to black </li></ul>
    33. 34. Manganese Deficiency in Greenhouse Crops <ul><li>Interveinal chlorosis of young leaves sometimes followed by the formation of tan spots in the chlorotic areas between the veins. </li></ul>
    34. 35. Zinc Deficiency <ul><li>Leaf malformation </li></ul><ul><li>irregular mottling </li></ul><ul><li>yellow-ivory interveinal areas </li></ul><ul><li>extreme rosetting of terminal and lateral shoots in woody species </li></ul><ul><li>In some cases necrotic spots appear on affected leaves. </li></ul>
    35. 36. Zinc Deficiency in Greenhouse Crops <ul><li>Young leaves are very small and internodes are short giving the stem a rosette appearance </li></ul><ul><li>These leaves are also chlorotic in varying patterns but tending toward interveinal </li></ul><ul><li>In kalanchoe, zinc deficiency can express itself as a fasciation (a flattened, highly branched stem). </li></ul>
    36. 37. Molybdenum Deficiency in Greenhouse Crops <ul><li>Symptoms apply to poinsettia, the only greenhouse floral crop it is known to affect </li></ul><ul><li>The margins of leaves at the middle of the plant become chlorotic presenting a silhouette appearance and then quickly necrotic </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms spread up and down the plant </li></ul><ul><li>These leaves may also become mis-shaped, resembling a half-moon pattern with some crinkling. </li></ul>
    37. 38. Molybdenum in Poinsettia
    38. 39. Other Abiotic Damage <ul><li>Blossom End Rot </li></ul><ul><li>Edema (oedema) </li></ul><ul><li>Excess sunlight to shade loving plants </li></ul><ul><li>Frost Damage </li></ul><ul><li>Heat Stress </li></ul><ul><li>Herbicide Damage </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf scorch </li></ul><ul><li>Salt Injury </li></ul><ul><li>Sunscald </li></ul><ul><li>Waterlogged Soil </li></ul><ul><li>Winter Burn </li></ul>
    39. 40. Blossom End Rot <ul><li>Calcium deficiency due to irregular watering </li></ul>
    40. 41. Edema <ul><li>Small, wartlike, sometimes corky swellings form on the leaf tissue of many plants </li></ul><ul><li>late fall into early spring especially with houseplants and greenhouse crops </li></ul><ul><li>rust like spots on the underside of the leaves </li></ul><ul><li>or leaves mottled with patches of various greens </li></ul><ul><li>water-soaked blemishes around enlarged dark-green to black cells </li></ul>
    41. 42. Edema
    42. 43. Frost Damage <ul><li>Frozen tissue appears water-soaked. </li></ul>
    43. 44. Frost Damage
    44. 45. Frost Damage <ul><li>An early fall or late spring frost when trees are actively growing can injure or kill succulent stem tissue, leaves, and buds. Most trees can survive this injury, but their growth rates are reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant tree species adapted to local conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>Cover young trees if frost is expected. </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid planting in low lying areas subject to frost. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not use high nitrogen fertilizer late in the growing season. </li></ul>
    45. 46. Cold damage to new Spruce growth
    46. 47. Heat Stress <ul><li>shut down basic growth functions, and cannot draw sufficient water up into their leaves </li></ul>
    47. 48. Phenoxy Herbicide Damage                             
    48. 49. Glyphosate Herbicide Damage
    49. 50. Excess Sunlight to Shade Loving Plants <ul><li>Strong sun and heat causes the breakdown of chlorophyll in the leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Damage appears as pale, bleached or faded areas </li></ul>
    50. 51. Leaf Scorch <ul><li>Plant is unable to take up sufficient water to meet its needs under harsh summer weather conditions. </li></ul>
    51. 52. Scorch on Spruce
    52. 53. Scorch <ul><li>Leaf margins turn yellow or brown and leaves fall prematurely. </li></ul><ul><li>Water during periods of hot weather to prevent injury to smaller trees. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant trees in locations protected from prolonged exposure to sun and wind . </li></ul>
    53. 54. Salt Injury <ul><li>When salt dissolves in water, sodium and chloride ions separate and may then harm the plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Chloride ions are readily absorbed by the roots, transported to the leaves, and accumulate there to toxic levels. </li></ul><ul><li>It is these toxic levels that cause the characteristic marginal leaf scorch </li></ul>
    54. 55. Salt Injury – High Soil Salts <ul><li>sudden wilting, stunted growth, marginal burn on leaves (especially lower, older leaves), leaf yellowing, leaf fall, dead roots, restricted root development, and sudden or gradual death of plants </li></ul><ul><li>While the major effect of high soil salts are to the roots, the tops of plants may show &quot;salt injury&quot; while the roots are apparently unaffected - the soluble salts enter the roots and are moved through the plant vessels to the leaves where the water evaporates and gradually concentrates the salts to toxic levels </li></ul><ul><li>When soil soluble salts are excessively high, the roots are unable to absorb water and the plant wilts </li></ul>
    55. 56. Salt Injury - Deicing
    56. 57. Sunscald <ul><li>on the south or southwest side of trees due to the heating and freezing of the bark tissue by the winter sun. </li></ul>
    57. 58. Sunscald <ul><li>This disease occurs during late winter or early spring when the temperature is above freezing during the day and below freezing at night </li></ul><ul><li>During the day the tree tissues, warmed by the sun, become active </li></ul><ul><li>Freezing at night kills this tissue, resulting in an elongated canker usually on the southwest side of the tree </li></ul>
    58. 59. Sunscald <ul><li>Thin barked trees such as maples are most susceptible to this type of injury. </li></ul><ul><li>Shade the tree or use tree wrap on younger, susceptible trees to reduce the warming of tree bark during the day. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant susceptible tree species at closer spacing </li></ul>
    59. 60. Sunscald on Tomato
    60. 61. Waterlogged Soil <ul><li>Roots in flooded or waterlogged soils are killed by a lack of oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>This can occur not only to trees on obviously wet sites but also to ornamental trees planted in heavy clay soils that have poor drainage. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms of oxygen deficiency closely resemble those of drought injury: reduced growth, small leaves and thin crowns, twig and branch dieback, and tree death . . </li></ul>
    61. 62. Waterlogged Soil <ul><li>Trees with root damage from waterlogged soils may be affected by drought stress if the excess moisture is drained off and roots are unable to meet the demands of tree tops. </li></ul><ul><li>Roots in waterlogged soils are susceptible to a variety of soil-borne fungal pathogens . </li></ul>
    62. 63. Waterlogged Soil <ul><li>Plant species that are adapted to the conditions in areas subject to periodic flooding. </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare planting sites to allow for adequate drainage and root growth. </li></ul>
    63. 64. Winter Burn
    64. 65. Winter Burn & Drying <ul><li>These are common problems on conifers </li></ul><ul><li>Winter burn is the browning of needles caused by a rapid temperature change in winter, particularly on the south side </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid temperature changes often occur at sunset and sunrise or when sunlight is suddenly blocked by other trees, hills, or buildings. </li></ul>
    65. 66. Winter Burn & Drying <ul><li>Winter drying is caused by the desiccation of foliage and twigs by warm dry winds, when water conduction is restricted by frozen plant tissues or frozen ground </li></ul><ul><li>Reddening, browning, and, in some cases, drooping of foliage become apparent in late winter and early spring </li></ul>
    66. 67. Winter Burn <ul><li>Avoid planting ornamental conifers where sudden temperature changes may occur. </li></ul><ul><li>Water and mulch around the trees in the fall to help prevent the soil from completely freezing in the rooting zone. </li></ul><ul><li>Wrap susceptible trees in burlap during winter to reduce loss of water from the foliage. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant seed sources that are hardy to conditions in the local area. </li></ul>
    67. 68. Winter Burn
    68. 69. Winter Burn on Norway Spruce
    69. 70. ID Nutritional Deficiency
    70. 71. Affecting bottom leaves
    71. 73. Other Abiotic Diseases