Betulaceae (Birch Family)
http:// =191   <ul><li>red alder   Betulaceae   Alnus  rubra   </l...
http:// =12   <ul><li>yellow birch   Betulaceae   Betula  alleghan...
http:// =11   <ul><li>sweet birch   Betulaceae   Betula  lenta   <...   <ul><li>water birch   Betulaceae   Betula  occidenta...
http:// =14   <ul><li>paper birch   Betulaceae   Betula  papyrifer...
http:// =191   <ul><li>gray birch   Betulaceae   Betula  populifol...
http:// =17   <ul><li>American hornbeam   Betulaceae   Carpinus  c...
http:// =62   <ul><li>Eastern hophornbeam   Betulaceae   Ostrya  v...
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  1. 1. Betulaceae (Birch Family)
  2. 3. http:// =191 <ul><li>red alder   Betulaceae   Alnus  rubra </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, deciduous, ovate, 3 to 6 inches long, prominently penniveined leaf with doubly serrate margins that are tightly rolled under at the edges (revolute); petiole 1 inch long and grooved; green to yellow green above and paler green below.  Flower:  Monoecious; but borne in unisexual aments (catkins), preformed males are slender, pendent, and hang in clusters of 2 to 5; female catkins are short and thick, borne at the ends of branchlets.  Fruit:  A small semi-woody cone about 1/2 to 1 inch long, persists through the winter, brown, seeds are tiny winged nutlets, shed in the fall.  Twig:  Young twigs are distinctly triangular in cross-section; olive to reddish brown; prominent lenticels; clearly stalked buds.  Bark:  Ashy gray to grayish brown, generally smooth but breaking into flat, irregular plates near the base, increasingly covered with white lichens as it ages; inner bark is tan but turns red when exposed to air.  Form:  A medium sized tree reaching 120 feet tall and 1 to 3 feet in diameter. Typically has a moderately straight bole with an open, broadly pyramidal or dome-shaped crown. Lower trunk is usually free of branches due to intolerance to shade.   </li></ul><ul><li>377W </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  3. 5. http:// =12 <ul><li>yellow birch   Betulaceae   Betula  alleghaniensis </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, ovate, 4 to 6 inches long, pinnately-veined, acute tip, rounded base, doubly serrate margins, somewhat soft or fuzzy, dark green above and paler below.  Flower:  Monoecious; males are preformed catkins occuring near ends of twig, 1 inch long, reddish green; females are upright 5/8 inches long, reddish green; appear or elongate (males) in the spring.  Fruit:  Cone like, 3/4 to 1 1/4 inches long, rather plump, upright, with many hairy scales containing 2-winged nutlets, matures in fall and disperse over winter.  Twig:  Slender, green-brown and hairy when young, light-brown and smooth later; spur shoots present on older trees; buds are ovoid, sharply pointed, reddish brown with ciliate scale margins. Twigs have a wintergreen smell when broken.  Bark:  On younger stems shiny bronze (sometimes gray), peeling horizontally in thin, curly, papery strips; older trees develop red-brown scaly plates.  Form:  A medium size tree to 75 feet with an irregular crown.      </li></ul><ul><li>364E </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  4. 7. http:// =11 <ul><li>sweet birch   Betulaceae   Betula  lenta </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, pinnately-veined, ovate, with an acute tip and cordate base, singly or irregularly doubly, sharply serrate margins, 2 to 4 inches long, petiole is stout and pubescent, dark shiny green above, paler below.  Flower:  Monoecious; preformed, green male catkins near the end of the twig, 3/4 to 1 inch long; females are upright, 1/2 to 3/4 inch long, green tinged in red, appear or elongate (males) in mid-spring.  Fruit:  Cone-like aggregate, brown, 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, scales hairless or nearly so, containing very small 2-winged nutlets, ripen and break apart in late summer and fall.  Twig:  Twigs are slender, reddish brown and lenticellate with a wintergreen smell when cut. On older trees, spur shoots are apparent. Terminal buds are absent, lateral buds two toned, green and brown.  Bark:  Reddish brown to black on young trees, later gray to nearly black; eventually breaking up into large, thin, irregular, scaly plates.  Form:  A medium sized tree with a single straight trunk reaching up to 60 feet tall.   </li></ul><ul><li>365E </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  5. 9. <ul><li>water birch   Betulaceae   Betula  occidentalis </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, deciduous, ovate to diamond-shaped, 3/4 to 2 inches long, yellow-green above and initially sticky but becoming smooth, paler and glandular below. Margins distinctly serrated or doubly serrated, except near the base.  Flower:  Monoecious; with both sexes borne in aments (catkins), male aments preformed and clustered, female aments usually solitary.  Fruit:  A cylindrical papery strobile (cone) that disintegrates at maturity, 1 inch long, seeds are tiny winged nutlets.  Twig:  Young twigs are green and sticky, but turn reddish brown and resin-dotted, eventually turn gray-brown and smooth.  Bark:  Thin and smooth, but dotted with conspicuous lenticles, almost black when young, but turning reddish brown to copper-colored as it ages, older bark may loosen and curl but does not exfoliate.  Form:  A loosely branched deciduous shrub or small tree growing to 40 feet tall and 1 foot in diameter.      </li></ul><ul><li>367E 382W </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  6. 11. http:// =14 <ul><li>paper birch   Betulaceae   Betula  papyrifera </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, pinnately-veined, ovate in shape, 3 to 5 inches long, with irregularly doubly serrate margins, an acute tip and rounded base (occasionally heart-shaped), green above and paler below.  Flower:  Monoecious; preformed male catkins near the end of the twig in groups of 2 to 5, 3/4 to 1 1/4 inches long; female are upright, 1 to 1 1/4 inches long, appear or elongate (males) in mid-spring.  Fruit:  Cone like, cylindrical 1 to 1 1/2 inches long, deciduous at maturity, releasing elliptical 2-winged nutlets, mature in the autumn and disperse over the winter.  Twig:  Slender, dull red-brown, numerous lighter lenticels, lacking wintergreen smell when cut; terminal bud absent, lateral buds are gummy, green and chestnut brown in color, spur shoots present on older growth.  Bark:  Reddish brown with light lenticels on very young stems; later turning chalky to creamy white, peeling in horizontal papery strips; brown to black and may be furrowed at base; orange inner bark.  Form:  A medium sized tree to 70 feet with a pyramidal or irregular crown, often with several trunks.   </li></ul><ul><li>368E 383W </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  7. 13. http:// =191 <ul><li>gray birch   Betulaceae   Betula  populifolia </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, pinnately-veined, triangular with a very elongated acuminate tip, 2 to 3 inches long, doubly serrate margin, green above and paler below.  Flower:  Monoecious; preformed male catkins near the end of the twig, 3/4 inch long, usually single; female upright, 1/2 inch long; appear or elongate (males) in early spring.  Fruit:  Cone like, cylindrical, 3/4 inch long, deciduous at maturity, releasing tiny 2-winged nutlets. Matures in autumn, disperses over winter.  Twig:  Slender, orange-brown to gray in color with warty, raised lenticels that give the twig a rough feel; buds are slender, pointed, green and brown, terminal bud is lacking.  Bark:  Reddish brown with numerous lighter lenticels on very young stems, later turning gray to white and very chalky; remains smooth and generally does not peel.  Form:  Small tree rarely over 30 feet tall typically with multiple trunks and a limby bole. The crown is irregular in shape with somewhat drooping slender branches.      </li></ul><ul><li>370E </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  8. 15. http:// =17 <ul><li>American hornbeam   Betulaceae   Carpinus  caroliniana </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, elliptical to ovate, 3 to 5 inches long, pinnately veined, tip acuminate, doubly serrate margin; waxy, smooth green above, paler below.  Flower:  Monoecious; males a slender, yellow-green hanging catkin, 1 to 2 inches long; female catkins yellow-green and fuzzy appearing from new branch tips, 1/2 to 3/4 inch long, both appearing in mid to late spring.  Fruit:  Small ribbed nutlet carried on a 3-lobed, slightly folded leafy bract that is 1 inch long (somewhat resembles a maple leaf), bracts are clustered on a long (4 to 6 inches) hanging stalk; ripen in late summer and fall, disperse through the winter.  Twig:  Slender, somewhat zigzag, brown to gray in color; buds are brown, angled, with a tan silky edge to each scale (making the buds appear lined), approximately 1/4 inch or less in length.  Bark:  Thin, smooth, gray to bluish gray regardless of age or size; trunk is fluted heavily, resulting in a muscular appearance.  Form:  A small, nearly shrubby tree reaching up to 25 feet tall with a rounded crown and a twisted trunk. </li></ul><ul><li>372E </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>
  9. 17. http:// =62 <ul><li>Eastern hophornbeam   Betulaceae   Ostrya  virginiana </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf:  Alternate, simple, pinnately veined, oval to broadly lanceolate, 3 to 5 inches long, with a doubly serrate margin, green above, paler and fuzzy in the axils of veins and on the petiole.  Flower:  Monoecious; males are preformed catkins, 1/2 to 1 inches long, in clusters of 3's (resemble birds toes), present throughout the winter; females appear in spring and are slender, light green catkins, 1/2 inch long, appearing or elongating (males) in spring.  Fruit:  Very distinctive, resembling hops. More specifically, a 1/4 inch nutlet is enclosed in a dried, leafy, inflated sac. Serveral sacs hang from one stem, 1 1/2 to 2 1/2 inches long; maturing in late summer and persisting through winter.  Twig:  Slender, reddish brown, smooth, and may be slightly pubescent. Male catkins present on the end of the branch; buds are small, plump ovate, and covered with green and red-brown, finely grooved (vertically) scales.  Bark:  When young smooth, reddish brown, with horizontal lenticels (cherry like), later turning light brown and developing a shreddy appearance, broken into small plates or loose scales that are easily broken off with a brush of the hand.  Form:  A small tree up to 40 feet tall that develops a round crown of fine branches.   </li></ul><ul><li>374E </li></ul><ul><li>Angiosperm </li></ul>