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Nursury and plant identification


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Nursury and plant identification

  1. 1. Nursery and Landscape Plant Identification By Daniel Forslin
  2. 2. Abies concolor White Fir <ul><li>Native of Western U.S.A. & Northern Mexico growing at varying altitudes from 620 metres to 2,350 metres.   Has outstanding tolerance to hot dry conditions. Recommended as one of the finest conifers for ornamental planting.   Thrives on fairly deep, rich, moist loam and also on coarse soils from granite. A very beautiful tree with a massive straight trunk.   Found to be unsuitable on some sites where rain falls at regular intervals during the hottest part of the summer.   The best site we found after many trials was cool shaded root run.  i.e. morning sun only or a south facing hillside.   Can grow to 80 metres in natural habitat. Growth approx. 30 cm per annum.   3.5 metres high x 1.5 metres wide in 10 years in our Nursery/Garden. Zone 3. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Acer Palmatum Japanese Maple <ul><li>One of the finest for Bonsai. Very ornamental with red and gold autumn foliage and relatively quick to display results. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Acer Platanoides Norway Maple <ul><li>‘ Crimson King’ Norway maple grows to a height of 35 to 45 feet spreading about 25 to 30 feet and is quite popular for its purple-green foliage throughout the summer. Leaves turn brown, dark maroon or bronze in the fall before dropping. The oval to rounded crown fills with maroon-yellow flowers in the spring. ‘Crimson King’ Norway Maple’s dense shade and shallow root system compete with lawn grasses, and the shallow roots can make mowing under the tree difficult. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Acer Rub Rum Red Maple <ul><li>Red Maple is a handsome native tree growing up to 60', developing a round head of leaves with silver undercolor. Red Maple is a beautiful tree from spring thru winter but the outstanding color of Red Maple leaves in the fall is their favored quality. A sure sign of spring in the Midwest is the dropping of the Red Maple flower clusters. The flowers litter the ground in March or April. The seed pods of Red Maple are the familiar little helicopters which drop in May or June. Red Maple has silver-gray bark with leaves starting out green with a reddish tint in the spring turning brilliant crimson to yellow in fall. Red Maple can have a wide variation of fall color. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Acer Saccharum Sugar maple <ul><li>Sugar Maple is found throughout Prince Edward Island in the hardwood areas. It is a tall tree averaging 21m to 24m in height and a diameter of up to 60cm. The trunk is usually straight in the forest, short and branched in the open. The compact and regular crown is composed of slender, mostly ascending branches. </li></ul><ul><li>It requires a moist rich, well-drained soil for its best development. It occurs in pure stands also in mixtures of red spruce, white spruce, balsam fir, beech, yellow birch, oak and red maple. </li></ul><ul><li>It is one of our most conspicuous hardwoods in autumn, the leaves turning brilliant shades of deep red, scarlet, golden orange and bright yellow. </li></ul><ul><li>The wood is one of the most valuable hardwoods in Canada. It is used for furniture, veneer, plywood and vehicle stock. Maple syrup and maple sugar is made from its sap. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Aesculus Hippocastanum Common Horsechestnut <ul><li>Aesculus are woody plants from 4 to 35 m tall (depending on species), and have stout shoots with resinous, often sticky, buds; opposite, palmately divided leaves, often very large (to 65 cm across in the Japanese Horse-chestnut Aesculus turbinata ); and showy insect-pollinated flowers , with a single four- or five-lobed petal (actually four or five petals fused at the base). Flowering starts after 80–110 growing degree days . The fruit is a rich glossy brown to blackish-brown nut 2–5 cm diameter, usually globose with one nut in a green or brown husk, but sometimes two nuts together in one husk, in which case the nuts are flat on one side; the point of attachment of the nut in the husk shows as a large circular whitish scar. The husk has scattered soft spines in some species, spineless in others, and splits into three sections to release the nut. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Ajuqa Reptans Ajuga Bugleweed <ul><li>The bugle has dark green leaves with purple highlights. It is a spreading ground cover that grows in a dense mat. The leaves grow 2-3 inches high but in the spring it sends up 4-6 inch tall flower stalks with many purple flowers on them. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Amelanchier X Grandiflora Apple Serviceberry <ul><li>Beautiful small tree (20x15) with four season interest; white flowers, edible fruits, red/orange fall color, smooth gray bark. Look around, you will find this wonderful native tree (shrub) in many wooded areas, classy in residential landscapes </li></ul>
  10. 10. Berberis Thunbergii Japanese Barberry <ul><li>Japanese barberry is a dense, deciduous, spiny shrub that grows 2 to 8 ft. high. The branches are brown, deeply grooved, somewhat zig-zag in form and bear a single very sharp spine at each node. The leaves are small (½ to 1 ½ inches long), oval to spatula-shaped, green, bluish-green, or dark reddish purple. Flowering occurs from mid-April to May in the northeastern U.S. Pale yellow flowers about ¼ in (0.6 cm) across hang in umbrella-shaped clusters of 2-4 flowers each along the length of the stem. The fruits are bright red berries about 1/3 in (1 cm) long that are borne on narrow stalks. They mature during late summer and fall and persist through the winter. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Betula Nigra River Birch <ul><li>One of Minnesota's more plentiful native trees, the River Birch (Betula nigra) is typically found along the banks of rivers and small streams and swampy areas that may be periodically flooded. The natural range of the River Birch is widespread from the Midwest to the northeast United States and as far south as northern Florida. </li></ul><ul><li>The tree is also called the Red Birch because of its distinctively cinnamon-reddish brown bark which curls back in thin paper-like layers revealing the pink of the inner bark. The River Birch truly stands out in Minnesota winters with its colorful bark against the white snow. The River Birch is often grown in clumps or as a multi-trunked tree in order to display its exfoliating bark. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally a medium-sized tree of 30 to 50 feet in height, River Birch trees can occasionally grow 75 to 80 feet tall. The River Birch's wood is heavy, fine-grained and strong. It is used in furniture, flooring, millwork, boxes and spools, and is popular for burning in fireplaces and wood stoves. </li></ul><ul><li>In the spring, the flowers are long catkins which open before the leaves. Cone-like fruit appears in May and June. The leaves turn a dull yellow before dropping in the fall. </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 30 River Birch trees line the north side of the WSU Library where they have been planted in a series of small triangular sections dissected by short sidewalks. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Betula Papyrifera Paper Birch/Canoe Birch <ul><li>Paper birch is a beautiful accent tree when used with a background of evergreens. It's bark, although soft and smooth to the touch, is one of the most durable plant substances. A mature tree can reach 40-70', is intolerant of shade, and grows best in sandy loam. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Buxus Microphylla var. Koreana Korean Little Leaf Boxwood <ul><li>Description The boxwoods are profusely branched evergreen shrubs widely used in landscaping, especially for hedges and foundation plantings. There are some 70 species of boxwoods, but only two are commonly found in cultivation: this one and common boxwood ( Buxus sempervirens) . But those two species have given us hundreds of botanical varieties, horticultural cultivars and hybrids of garden origin to choose from. All the boxwoods have small, opposite, evergreen leaves. They produce small star shaped yellowish green pistillate (female) and staminate (male) flowers on the same plants. The flowers are not showy, but are quite fragrant. The star points are actually sepals - boxwood flowers have no petals. The flowers are in clusters consisting of a single female flower in the center, surrounded by several male flowers, recognized by their conspicuous yellow anthers. Littleleaf boxwood has very small leaves, just 3/4 in (1.9 cm) long, and considerably thinner in texture (almost transparent) than those of other boxwoods. They are elliptic-oblong, and dark green, usually turning a rather ugly bronze in winter. Littleleaf boxwood grows in a dense rounded mound, 2-3 ft (0.6-0.9 m) tall and 3-5 ft (0.9-1.5 m) across. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Catalpa Speciosa Northern Catalpa <ul><li>Northern Catalpa ( Catalpa speciosa ) is a species of Catalpa , native to the midwestern United States in Arkansas , Illinois , Indiana , Missouri , Kentucky , and Tennessee .It is a medium-sized deciduous tree growing to 15-20 meters tall, with a trunk up to 1 m diameter with brown to gray bark , maturing into hard plates or ridges. The leaves are large, heart shaped, 20-30 cm long and 15-20 cm broad. The flowers are 3-6 cm across, trumpet shaped, white with yellow stripes and purple spots inside; they grow in panicles of 10-30.The fruit is a long, thin bean like pod 20-40 cm long and 10-12 mm diameter; it often stays attached to tree during winter (and can be mistaken for brown icicles ). The pod contains numerous flat light brown seeds with two papery wings.It is closely related to Southern Catalpa , and can be distinguished by the flowering panicles, which bear a smaller number of larger flowers, and the slightly broader seed pods. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Celastrus Scandens America Bittersweet <ul><li>Bittersweet is a semi- woody herbaceous perennial vine , which scrambles over other plants, capable of reaching a height of 4 m where suitable support is available, but more often 1-2 m high. The leaves are 4-12 cm long, roughly arrowhead-shaped, and often lobed at the base. The flowers are in loose clusters of 3-20, (1-1.5 cm) across, star-shaped, with five purple petals and yellow stamens and style pointing forward. The fruit is an ovoid red berry about 1 cm long, soft and juicy, poisonous to humans and livestock but edible for birds , which disperse the seeds widely. As with most Solanum species, the foliage is also poisonous to humans.Bittersweet is used in homeopathic medicine and herbalism . Its main usage is for conditions that have an impact on the skin , mucous membrane and the membrane ( synovial membrane ) around the joints. Bittersweet is considered to be an important remedy for treating herpes infections and allergies </li></ul>
  16. 16. Celtis Occidentalis Common Hackberry <ul><li>A large tree with a slender trunk, rising to the height of one hundred and thirty feet, is the Hackberry in the southern Mississippi valley area, but in the middle states it attains the height of sixty feet with a handsome round-topped head and pendulous branches. It prefers rich moist soil, but will grow on gravelly or rocky hillsides. The roots are fibrous and it grows rapidly. [1] </li></ul><ul><li>It has an unmistakable bark pattern. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Cercis Canadensis Eastern Redbud <ul><li>Eastern Redbud ( Cercis canadensis L. ) is a large shrub or small tree native to eastern North America from southern Ontario , Canada south to northern Florida , United States .It typically grows to 8-12 m tall, with a short, often twisted trunk and spreading branches . The bark is dark in color, smooth, later scaly with ridges somewhat apparent, sometimes with maroon patches. The twigs are slender and zigzag, nearly black in color, spotted with lighter lenticels . The winter buds are tiny, rounded and dark red to chestnut in color. The leaves are alternate, simple, cordate in shape with an entire margin, 7-12 cm (3-5 inches) long and wide, thin and papery, and may be slightly hairy below. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Chaenomeles Speciosa Common Flowering Quince <ul><li>The Quince ( Cydonia oblonga ) is the sole member of the genus Cydonia and native to warm-temperate southwest Asia in the Caucasus region. It is a small deciduous tree , growing 5-8 m tall and 4-6 m wide, related to apples and pears , and like them has a pome fruit , which is bright golden yellow when mature, pear-shaped, 7-12 cm long and 6-9 cm broad.The immature fruit is green, with dense grey-white pubescence which mostly (but not all) rubs off before maturity in late autumn when the fruit changes colour to yellow with hard flesh that is strongly perfumed. The leaves are alternately arranged, simple, 6-11 cm long, with an entire margin and densely pubescent with fine white hairs. The flowers , produced in spring after the leaves, are white or pink, 5 cm across, with five petals </li></ul>
  19. 19. Clematis spp. Clematis <ul><li>Clematis (from Ancient Greek klematis , a climbing plant, probably periwinkle ) is a genus of mostly vigorous climbing lianas , with attractive flowers. Some species are shrubby , and some others are herbaceous perennial plants . They are found throughout the temperate regions of both hemispheres, and also in mountains in the tropics. The cool temperate species are deciduous , but many of the warmer climate species are evergreen . </li></ul>
  20. 20. Clethra Ainifolia Summersweet Clethra <ul><li>Clethra alnifolia ( Sweet Pepperbush or Summersweet ), is a flowering plant in the genus Clethra , native to eastern North America from southern Nova Scotia and Maine south to northern Florida , and west to eastern Texas .It is a deciduous shrub growing to 2-4 m tall. The leaves are obovate to oblong, 4-10 cm long and 2-4 cm broad, with a serrated margin; they are green turning yellow-golden during the autumn. The flowers are white or very pale pink, 5-10 mm diameter, and have a sweet, pungent fragrance ; they are produced in racemes up to 15 cm long and 2 cm broad from July until September.It grows in wet forests , pine flatwoods , wetlands , bogs and can be seen alongside woodland streams. The Nova Scotia population is small and endangered </li></ul>
  21. 21. Cornus Mas Corneliancherry Dogwood <ul><li>( Cornus mas ) is a species of dogwood native to southern Europe and southwest Asia . </li></ul><ul><li>It is a medium to deciduous large shrub or small tree growing to 5-12 m tall, with dark brown branches and greenish twigs. The leaves are opposite, 4-10 cm long and 2-4 cm broad, with an ovate to oblong shape and an entire margin. The flowers are small (5-10 mm diameter), with four yellow petals, produced in clusters of 10-25 together in the late winter, well before the leaves appear. The fruit is an oblong red drupe 2 cm long and 1.5 cm diameter, containing a single seed . </li></ul>
  22. 22. Cornus Stolonifera Red Oiser Dogwood <ul><li>The Red Osier Dogwood ( Cornus sericea , syn . C. stolonifera , Swida sericea ) is a species of dogwood native throughout northern and western North America from Alaska east to Newfoundland , south to Durango and Nuevo León in the west, and Illinois and Virginia in the east. Other names include Redtwig Dogwood , Red-rood , Red rood , American Dogwood , and (subsp. occidentalis ) Western Dogwood . In the wild, it commonly grows in areas of damp soil, such as wetlands .It is a medium to tall deciduous shrub , growing 1.5-4 m tall and 3-5 m wide, spreading readily by underground stolons to form dense thickets. The branches and twigs are dark red, although wild plants may lack this coloration in shaded areas. The leaves are opposite, 5-12 cm long and 2.5-6 cm broad, with an ovate to oblong shape and an entire margin; they are dark green above and glaucous below; fall color is commonly bright red to purple. The flowers are small (5-10 mm diameter), dull white in color, in clusters 3-6 cm diameter. The fruit is a globose white berry 5-9 mm diameter. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Cotoneaster Apiculatus Cranberry Cotoneaster <ul><li>Cotoneaster ( Cotoneaster ) is a genus of woody plants in the rose family Rosaceae , native to the Palaearctic region (temperate Asia , Europe , north Africa ), with a strong concentration of diversity in the genus in the mountains of southwestern China and the Himalaya . They are related to hawthorns ( Crataegus ), firethorns ( Pyracantha ), photinias ( Photinia ) and rowans ( Sorbus ).Depending on the species definition used, there are between 70-300 species of cotoneaster, with many apomictic microspecies treated as species by some authors, but only as varieties by others. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Crataegus Phaenopyrum Washington Hawthorn <ul><li>Crataegus Phaenopyrum is a broadly oval to rounded, dense, thorny tree. The foliage is a reddish purple when unfolding gradually changing to lustrous dark green at maturity. Fall color varies from orange to scarlet to purplish. Flowers are white and ½” diameter. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Elaeagnus Angustifolia Russian Olive <ul><li>Elaeagnus Angustifolia is an excellent windbreak and wildlife tree. It is extremely tolerant of environmental factors. The best windbreak tree for high wind areas. Pictured is the Elaeagnus Angustifolia in a tree form. Can be made into a hedge by planting 10’ apart in the row. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Euonymus Fortunei Wintercreeper <ul><li>It is a woody evergreen vine , growing to 20 m tall, climbing by means of small rootlets on the stems, similar to ivy (an example of convergent evolution , as the two species are not related). Like ivy, it also has a sterile non-flowering juvenile climbing or creeping phase, which on reaching high enough into the crowns of trees to get more light, develops into an adult, flowering phase which does not have climbing rootlets. </li></ul><ul><li>The leaves are arranged in opposite pairs, elliptic to elliptic-ovate, 2-6 cm long and 1-3 cm broad, with a finely serrated margin. The flowers are inconspicuous, 5 mm diameter, with four small greenish-yellow petals. The fruit is a four-lobed pale green pod-like berry, which splits open to reveal the fleshy-coated orange seeds , one seed in each lobe. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Euonymus Alatus Burning Bush <ul><li>Euonymus alatus , known variously as Winged Spindle , Winged Euonymus or Burning Bush , is a deciduous shrub native to eastern Asia , in central and northern China , Japan , and Korea . The shrub grows to 2.5 m tall, often wider than tall. The stems are notable for their four corky ridges or &quot;wings&quot;. The leaves are 2-7 cm long and 1-4 cm broad, ovate-elliptic, with an acute apex. The flowers are greenish, borne over a long period in the spring. The fruit is a red aril enclosed by a four-lobed pink, yellow or orange capsule.The common name &quot;burning bush&quot; comes from the bright red fall color.It is a popular ornamental plant in gardens and parks due to its bright pink or orange fruit and attractive fall color. This plant is an invasive species of woodlands in eastern North America </li></ul>
  28. 28. Fagus Grandifolia American Beech <ul><li>The American Beech Fagus grandifolia is a species of beech native to eastern North America , from Nova Scotia west to southern Ontario in southeastern Canada , west to Wisconsin and south to eastern Texas and northern Florida in the United States . Trees in the southern half of the range are sometimes distinguished as a variety, F. grandifolia var. caroliniana , but this is not considered distinct in the Flora of North America. A related beech native to the mountains of central Mexico is sometimes treated as a subspecies of American Beech, but more often as a distinct species, Mexican Beech Fagus mexicana . </li></ul>
  29. 29. Forsythia X Intermidea Border Forsythia <ul><li>A decidious shrub growing to 2.5m by 2.5m . It is hardy to zone 5. It is in flower from March to April. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects. We rate it 1 out of 5 for usefulness.The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Fraxinus Americana White Ash <ul><li>The White Ash or Cane Ash ( Fraxinus americana ) is one of the largest of the ash genus Fraxinus , growing to 35 m (115 ft) tall. It is native to eastern North American hardwood forests , found in mesophytic forests from Quebec to northern Florida . The wood is white, strong, and straight-grained. The name White Ash apparently derives from the glaucous undersides of the leaves. The leaves are 20-30 cm long, pinnately compound with 7 (occasionally 5 or 9) leaflets, 6-13 cm (2-5 in) long. They turn yellow, red, or purple in the fall. Cultivars , which have superior fall color, include 'Autumn Applause' and 'Autumn Purple'.This tree, like all ashes, is dioecious , with male and female flowers being born on separate trees. Flowering occurs in early spring after 30-55 growing degree days . The fruit when fully formed is a samara 3-5 cm long, the seed 1.5-2 cm long with a pale brown wing 1.5-3 cm long, and can be blown a good distance from the parent tree. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Fraxinus Pennysylvanica Green Ash <ul><li>ID Features </li></ul><ul><li>opposite leaves </li></ul><ul><li>pinnately compound leaves </li></ul><ul><li>female plants with paddle-shaped samaras </li></ul><ul><li>dark reddish brown buds, pubescent </li></ul><ul><li>leaf scars with a notch in them at top </li></ul><ul><li>twigs gray and buds brown </li></ul><ul><li>twigs stout </li></ul>
  32. 32. Ginkgo Biloba Ginko. Maiden Tree <ul><li>The Ginkgo ( Ginkgo biloba ; ' 銀杏 ' in Chinese), frequently misspelled as &quot;Gingko&quot;, and also known as the Maidenhair Tree , is a unique tree with no close living relatives. It is classified in its own division, the Ginkgophyta , comprising the single class Ginkgoopsida , order Ginkgoales , family Ginkgoaceae , genus Ginkgo and is the only extant species within this group. It is one of the best known examples of a living fossil . In the past it has also been placed in the divisions Spermatophyta or Pinophyta . Ginkgo is a gymnosperm : its seeds are not protected by an ovary wall. The apricot-like structures produced by female ginkgo trees are technically not fruits , but are the seeds having a shell that consists of a soft and fleshy section (the sarcotesta ), and a hard section (the sclerotesta ). </li></ul>
  33. 33. Gelditsia Tricanthos Inermis Hornless Honey Locust <ul><li>It can reach a height of 20–30 meters (66–100 feet), with fast growth. They are relatively short-lived, however, living about 120 years. They are also prone to losing large branches in windstorms. The leaves are pinnately compound on older trees but bipinnately compound on vigorous young trees. The leaflets are 1.5–2.5 cm long (smaller on bipinnate leaves) and bright green. They turn yellow in the fall. The strongly scented cream-colored flowers appear in late spring, in clusters emerging from the base of the leaf axils.The fruit is a flat legume (pod) that matures between September and October. The pods are generally between 15–20 cm long. The pulp on the insides of the pods is edible and sweet; it should not be confused with Black locust , which is toxic. The seeds are dispersed by grazing herbivores (e.g. cattle and horses ), which eat the pod pulp and then excrete the seeds in their droppings; the animal's digestive system assists in breaking down the hard seed coat, making germination easier. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Hamamelis Virginiana Common Witchhazel <ul><li>Hamamelis virginiana is a species of Witch-hazel found across eastern North America , from Nova Scotia to Wisconsin in the north and northern Florida to Texas in the south. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a large deciduous shrub that usually reaches a height of 15 feet, although it can sometimes grow to 30 feet. Its leaves are toothed or lobed, and about 3 to 6 inches long. The bright yellow flowers grow in clusters, have four parts, and have ribbon-shaped petals about one inch long. H. virginiana blooms in about mid fall and continues until late fall. The fruit is a hard woody capsule about ½ an inch long, which explodes and launches two shiny black seeds up to 30 feet when it is mature. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Hedera Helix English Ivy <ul><li>Hedera helix (species name from Ancient Greek &quot;twist, turn&quot;), also called Ivy , Common Ivy , or English Ivy is a species of ivy native to most of Europe and southwest Asia . It is an evergreen climbing plant, growing to 20-30 m high where suitable surfaces ( trees , cliffs , walls ) are available, and also growing as ground cover where there are no vertical surfaces. It holds on to tree bark and rock by means of short adhesive rootlets. The helix part of the name refers to where there are spirals in the leaves. </li></ul>
  36. 36. Hydrangea Arborescens Smooth Hydrangea <ul><li>Best grown in average, medium wet, well-drained soil in part shade. Tolerates full sun in the northern part of its range, but needs constant moisture. Intolerant of drought, with foliage tending to become significantly less attractive in dryish conditions. If left alone, this Hydrangea can become somewhat weedy in appearance and can spread rapidly by root suckers to form colonies. Blooms on new wood, and in cold winter climates, it is perhaps best grown as an herbaceous perennial (e.g., cut back to 1-2' from the ground in late winter). </li></ul>
  37. 37. Iiex X Meserveae Blue Holly <ul><li>Culture </li></ul><ul><li>full sun to full shade (best in partial sun to partial shade) </li></ul><ul><li>prefers moist, well-drained, rich, slightly acidic soils, but tolerates soils of average to poor fertility and is pH adaptable to neutral or slightly alkaline soils (many Hollies require acidic soils) </li></ul><ul><li>hybrids are propagated primarily by rooted stem cuttings </li></ul><ul><li>Holly Family, with few disease or pest problems, but Winter leaf and stem burn may occur in Northern climates, and Summer heat stress will often occur in Southern climates </li></ul><ul><li>plant one male plant for every three to five female plants, to ensure good pollination and fruit set on the female (berry-laden) plants </li></ul><ul><li>abundantly available, primarily in containers, but also in ball and burlap form </li></ul><ul><li>broadleaf evergreens (such as Blue Holly) should preferably not be planted at south- or west-facing exposed sites, in order to avoid Winter foliage burn (from the sun and wind) and Summer heat stress </li></ul><ul><li>pruning of plants of either gender should carefully done, as too much pruning at too late a point in the season will remove nearly all of the floral buds for the following season, since the flower buds set by mid-July on the current season's growth </li></ul>
  38. 38. Iiex Verticillata Winterberry <ul><li>American Winterberry ( Ilex verticillata ), also known as Black Alder, Black Alder Winterberry, Brook Alder, Coralberry, Deciduous Holly, Deciduous Winterberry, False alder, Fever bush, Inkberry, Michigan Holly, Possumhaw, Striped Alder, Swamp Holly, Virginian Winterberry, White Alder, or Winterberry Holly, is a species of holly native to a very large area in the eastern United States and southeast Canada , particularly in wetlands . The winterberry is one of a number of hollies which are deciduous , losing their leaves in the fall. Like most hollies, it is dioecious , with separate male and female plants; the proximity of at least one male plant is required to pollenize the females in order to bear fruit. </li></ul><ul><li>The plant can show a lot of variation, ranging in size from 1-5 m tall. It also shows variation in width; in wet sites, it will spread to form a dense thicket, while in dry soil it remains a tight shrub. The winterberry possesses the glossy green foliage typical of hollies, and small white flowers which give rise to the numerous small red berries which give the plant its name </li></ul>
  39. 39. Juglans Nigra Black Walnut <ul><li>The Black Walnut or American Walnut ( Juglans nigra L.) is a native of eastern North America , where it grows, mostly alongside rivers, from southern Ontario , Canada west to southeast South Dakota , south to Georgia , northern Florida and southwest to central Texas Mature treeIt is a large deciduous tree attaining heights of 30–40 metres (100–130 feet). Under forest competition it develops a tall, clear bole ; the open-grown form has a short bole and broad crown. The bark is grey-black and deeply furrowed. The pith of the twigs contains air spaces. The leaves are alternate, 30–60 cm long, odd-pinnate with 15–23 leaflets, the largest leaflets located in the centre, 7–10 cm long and 2–3 cm broad. The male flowers are in drooping catkins 8–10 cm long, the female flowers terminal, in clusters of two to five, ripening in the autumn into a fruit with a brownish-green, semi-fleshy husk and a brown corrugated nut . The whole fruit, including the husk, falls in October; the seed is relatively small and very hard. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Juniperus Chinensis Chinese Juniper <ul><li>Juniperus chinensis ( Chinese Juniper , 龙柏 ) is a shrub or tree , very variable in shape, reaching 1-20 m tall. It is native to northeast Asia , in China , Mongolia , Japan , Korea and the southeast of Russia .The leaves are of two forms, juvenile needle-like leaves 5-10 mm long, and adult scale-leaves 1.5-3 mm long. Mature trees usually continue to bear some juvenile foliage as well as adult, particularly on shaded shoots low in the crown. It is largely dioecious with separate male and female plants, but some individual plants produce both sexes. The cones are berry-like, 7-12 mm in diameter, blue-black with a whitish waxy bloom, and contain 2-4 seeds ; they are mature in about 18 months. The male cones are 2-4 mm long, and shed their pollen in early spring. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Juniperus Horizontalis Creeping Juniper <ul><li>Juniperus horizontalis ( Creeping Juniper ) is a low-growing shrubby juniper native to northern North America , throughout most of Canada from Yukon east to Newfoundland , and in the United States in Alaska , and locally from Montana east to Maine , reaching its furthest south in Wyoming and northern Illinois .It lives up to both its scientific and common names, reaching only 10-30 cm tall but often spreading several metres wide. The shoots are slender, 0.7-1.2 mm diameter. The leaves are arranged in opposite decussate pairs, or occasionally in whorls of three; the adult leaves are scale-like, 1-2 mm long (to 8 mm on lead shoots) and 1-1.5 mm broad. The juvenile leaves (on young seedlings only) are needle-like, 5-10 mm long. The cones are berry-like, globose to bilobed, 5-7 mm in diameter, dark blue with a pale blue-white waxy bloom, and contain two seeds (rarely one or three); they usually have a curved stem and are mature in about 18 months. The male cones are 2-4 mm long, and shed their pollen in early spring. It is dioecious , producing cones of only one sex on each plant. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Juniperus Virginiana Eastern Red Cedar <ul><li>Juniperus virginiana is a widespread North American species of juniper , known as Eastern Juniper or Eastern Redcedar (although it is not closely related to the true cedars , genus Cedrus ); the Lakota Native American name is Chansha , &quot;redwood&quot; or Hante' . It is found from southeastern Canada to the Gulf of Mexico , east of the Great Plains . Further west, it is replaced by the related Juniperus scopulorum (Rocky Mountain Juniper), and to the southwest, Juniperus ashei (Ashe Juniper).Eastern Juniper treesEastern Juniper is a dense slow-growing tree that may never become more than a bush on poor soil but is ordinarily from 5-18 m tall, rarely 25 m, with a short trunk from 30-60 cm (1-2 feet) in diameter, rarely 120 cm (4 feet) diameter. The largest trees, on bottomlands in southeastern states of the USA , can be 300 years old. The bark is reddish-brown, fibrous, and peels off in narrow strips. The leaves are of two types; sharp, spreading needle-like juvenile leaves 5-10 mm long, and tightly adpressed scale-like adult leaves 2-4 mm long. The juvenile leaves are found on young plants up to 1-3 years old, and as scattered shoots on adult trees, usually in shade. The cones are 3-7 mm long, berry -like with fleshy scales, dark purple-blue with a white wax cover giving an overall sky-blue color (though the wax often rubs off); they are mature in 6-8 months. The 'berries' furnish winter food for many birds , which disperse the wingless seeds </li></ul>
  43. 43. Larix Decidua European Larch <ul><li>European Larch ( Larix decidua ) is a species of larch native to the mountains of central Europe , in the Alps and Carpathians , with disjunct lowland populations in northern Poland and southern Lithuania .It is a medium-size to large deciduous coniferous tree reaching 25-45 m tall, with a trunk up to 1 m diameter (exceptionally, to 55 m tall and 2 m diameter). The crown is conic when young, becoming broad with age; the main branches are level to upswept, with the side branches often pendulous. The shoots are dimorphic, with growth divided into long shoots (typically 10-50 cm long) and bearing several buds , and short shoots only 1-2 mm long with only a single bud. The leaves are needle-like, light green, 2-4 cm long which turn bright yellow before they fall in the autumn, leaving the pale yellow-buff shoots bare until the next spring.The cones are erect, ovoid-conic, 2-6 cm long, with 30-70 erect or slightly incurved (not reflexed) seed scales; they are green variably flushed red when immature, turning brown and opening to release the seeds when mature, 4-6 months after pollination. The old cones commonly remain on the tree for many years, turning dull grey-black.It is very cold tolerant, able to survive winter temperatures down to at least -50°C, and is among the tree-line trees in the Alps, reaching 2400 m altitude, though most abundant from 1000-2000 m. It only grows on well-drained soils, avoiding waterlogged ground.The seeds are an important food for some birds , notably Siskin , Lesser Redpoll and Citril Finch , while the buds and immature cones are eaten by Capercaillie . </li></ul>
  44. 44. Liriodendron Tulipifera Tulip Tree <ul><li>Liriodendron tulipifera , commonly known as the American tulip tree , is the Western Hemisphere representative of the two-species Liriodendron genus. It is native to eastern North America from southern Ontario and Illinois eastward across southern New England and south to central Florida and Louisiana . It can grow to more than 50 m (165 feet) in virgin cove forests of the Appalachian Mountains , often with no limbs until it reaches 25-30 m (80-100 feet) in height, making it a very valuable timber tree. It is fast-growing, without the common problems of weak wood strength and short lifespan often seen in fast-growing species. April marks the start of the flowering period in the southern USA (except as noted below); trees at the northern limit of cultivation begin to flower in June. The flowers are pale green or yellow (rarely white), with an orange band on the tepals ; they yield large quantities of nectar . The American tulip tree is the state tree of Indiana , Kentucky and Tennessee . </li></ul>
  45. 45. Magnolia X Soulangiana Saucer Mangolia <ul><li>Leaf : Alternate, simple, oblong to obovate, 3 to 6 inches long, entire margin, green above, paler and fuzzy below. Flower: Monoecious; large (4 to 8 inches) and showy, light pink to nearly purple petals, appearing in mid-spring. Fruit: A cone-like aggregate of follicles, 2 to 3 inches long; matures in late summer. Twig: Moderate, gray-brown, glabrous; buds tan and very fuzzy, flower buds quite large (nearly an inch); stipule scar encircles twig. Bark: Smooth, mottled gray. Form: Small tree to 20 feet, typically multi-stemmed with a narrow crown. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Magnolia Stellata Star Mangolia <ul><li>This tree grows 4.6 to 6 m (15 to 20 ft) in height, and spreads to 4.6m in width at maturity.The shrub displays upright oval growth in youth, and spreads and mounds with age. [1] The tree blooms at a young age, with the slightly fragrant 7–10 cm (3–4 in) flowers covering the bare plant in late winter or early spring before the leaves appear. There is natural variation within the flower color, which varies from white to rich pink; the hue of pink magnolias changes from year to year, depending on day and night air temperatures prior to and during flowering. The flowers are star shaped, with at least 12 thin, delicate tepals - some cultivars have more than 30.The leaves open bronze-green, turning to deep green as they mature, and yellow before dropping in autumn. They are oblong and about 4 in (10 cm) long by about an 1.5 in (4 cm) wide.It produces a reddish-green, knobby aggregate fruit which is about 2 in long and matures and opens in early autumn. The fruit often drops before fully developed, but mature fruit opens by slits to reveal orange-red seeds. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Mahonia Aquifolium Oregon Grape Holly <ul><li>Oregon-grape ( Mahonia aquifolium , Berberidaceae ) is an evergreen shrub related to the barberry . Some authors submerge Mahonia in the barberry genus, Berberis . The plant is in no way related to grapes , but gets the name from the purple clusters of berries. It is sometimes called Tall Oregon-grape to distinguish it from Creeping Oregon-grape ( Mahonia repens ) and &quot;Cascade&quot; or Dwarf Oregon-grape ( M. nervosa ). The name is often left un-hyphenated as Oregon grape , though doing so invites confusion with the true grapes . It also occasionally appears in print as Oregongrape FlowersOregon-grape grows to 1-5 m tall. Its leathery leaves resemble holly and the stems and twigs have a thickened, corky appearance. The flowers, borne in late spring, are an attractive yellow.Oregon-grape is used in landscaping similarly to barberry, as a plant suited for low-maintenance plantings and loose hedges. Oregon-grape is resistant to summer drought, tolerates poor soils, and does not create excessive leaf litter. Its berries attract birds.The small purplish-black fruits, which are quite tart and contain large seeds, are sometimes used locally mixed with Salal to make jelly. As the leaves of Oregon-grape are holly-like and resist wilting, the foliage is sometimes used by florists for greenery and a small gathering industry has been established in the Pacific Northwest . The inner bark of the larger stems and roots of Oregon-grape yield a yellow dye. </li></ul>
  48. 48. Malus Spp. Flowering Crabapple <ul><li>Malus , the apples , is a genus of about 30-35 species of small deciduous trees or shrubs in the family Rosaceae , including the domesticated Orchard Apple , or Table apple as it was formerly called ( M. sylvestris domestica , derived from M. sylvestris sieversii , syn. M. pumila ). The other species and subspecies are generally known as &quot;wild apples&quot;, &quot;crab apples&quot;, &quot;crabapples&quot; or &quot;crabs&quot;, this name being derived from their small and tart fruit . Many consider these apples unpalatable, but others enjoy eating them raw or using them for cooking or juicing. Cultivars such as 'Whitney' have been independently domesticated for better fruit quality.The genus is native to the temperate zone of the Northern Hemisphere , in Europe , Asia and North America . Malus sikkimensis fruitApple trees are small, typically 4-12 m tall at maturity, with a dense, twiggy crown. The leaves are 3-10 cm long, alternate, simple, with a serrated margin. The flowers are borne in corymbs , and have five petals , which may be white, pink or red, and are perfect , with usually red stamens that produce copious pollen , and an inferior ovary; flowering occurs in the spring after 50-80 growing degree days (varying greatly according to subspecies and cultivar). Apples require cross-pollination between individuals by insects (typically bees , which freely visit the flowers for both nectar and pollen ); all are self-sterile, and (with the exception of a few specially developed cultivars) self-pollination is impossible, making pollinating insects essential. The honeybee and mason bee are the most effective insect pollinators of apples. Malus species, including domestic apples, hybridize freely. Malus species are used as food plants by the larvae of a large number of Lepidoptera species; see list of Lepidoptera which feed on Malus </li></ul>
  49. 49. Myrica Pensylvanica Northern Bayberry <ul><li>The Northern Bayberry ( Myrica pensylvanica ) is a species of Myrica native to eastern North America , from Newfoundland west to Ontario and Ohio , and south to North Carolina .It is a deciduous shrub growing to 2-4.5 m tall. The leaves are 2.5-7 cm long and 1.5-2.7 cm broad, broadest near the leaf apex, serrated, and sticky with a spicy scent when crushed. The flowers are catkins 3-18 mm long, in range of colors from green to red. The fruit is a wrinkled berry 3-5.5 mm diameter, with a pale blue-purple waxy coating; they are an important food for Yellow- rumped Warblers .This species has root nodules containing nitrogen-fixing microorganisms, allowing it to grow in relatively poor soils. </li></ul>
  50. 50. Nyssa Sylvatica Black Gum <ul><li>Black Tupelo ( Nyssa sylvatica ), is a medium-sized deciduous tree which grows around 20-25 m (65-80 ft) tall (rarely to 35 m) and a trunk diameter of 50-100 cm (20-40 in) (rarely up to 170 cm). It is native to eastern North America , from New England and southern Ontario south to central Florida and eastern Texas . </li></ul><ul><li>The species is often known as simply Tupelo , but the full name Black Tupelo helps distinguish it from the other species of tupelo , some of which ( Water Tupelo N. aquatica and Swamp Tupelo N. biflora ) occur in the same area. The name Tupelo is of Native American origin. Other names include Blackgum , Pepperidge , Sourgum , and (on Martha's Vineyard ) Beetlebung , this last perhaps from the mallet known as a beetle, used for hammering bungs , or stoppers, into barrels ( &quot; Beetlebung &quot; and other tupelo lore ). The scientific name means &quot;nymph of the woods&quot; in Greek . </li></ul>