Maintaining Healthy Landscapes


IPM/PHC
Integrated Pest Management

 IPM
 – an environmentally sensitive approach to
   controlling pests that does not rely total...
Plant Health Care

 PHC
 – A holistic system that focuses more on
   healthy landscapes rather than the pest.
 – Coined by...
Pest Management

 NO MATTER WHAT YOU CALL IT,
 MAINTAINING A HEALTHY
 LANDSCAPE REQUIRES MUCH
 MORE THAN SPRAYING PESTS.
PHC

1. Know your plants
 – Culture/Care/Siting
 – Start right (soil
   preparation)
Black plastic under rock

PHC

Study the landscape          slkj
ecosystem
 – How does the
                               ...
PHC

Determine key
problem
 – Monitor, Scout
 – Identify/Diagnose
   Pest
    • Insect, Disease,
      Weed vs. Abiotic
PHC

Optimize plant
health
 – What’s being done
   wrong in the culture
   of plant? Fertility,
   water, etc.
 – If pest ...
IPM

 Step 0: Grow plant the right way
 (assumption)
 Step 1: Monitor, Scout
 Step 2: Identify pest
 Step 3: Manage pest u...
Pest Management (IPM)

 Cultural control
 Mechanical control (Physical control)
 Biological control
 Chemical control
 – p...
Cultural Control (IPM)

 Same as PHC steps of
 – know your plants
 – study landscape ecosystem
 – optimize plant health
Cultural Control (IPM)

 Sanitation - removal of insect infested,
 diseased plant parts. Clean up plant
 debris.
 Modify t...
Cultural Control (IPM)

 Modification of environment
 – Induced competition
    • ie encourage dense ground covers to redu...
Mechanical Control (IPM)

 Physically removing
 a pest or infested
 plant
 – Washing off aphids
   with a garden hose
 – p...
Biological Control (IPM)

 Natural control
 Predators
 Parasites
 Diseases
 Bioantagonists
Biocontrol

 Natural control
 – Weather extremes
    • freeze
    • wind
    • rain
Biocontrol

 Predators (insect control)
 – insects or spiders that require several prey
   to complete their development
 ...
Biocontrol
                          Eggs
 Examples of predators
  – Ladybird beetles




                       Larva



...
Biocontrol
                           Eggs
   Examples of predators
    – Green lacewing




Adult
                       ...
Biocontrol
                        – Hunting wasp
 Examples of
 predators
 – Predatory stinkbug
Biocontrol

 Parasites
 – Require one host to complete
   development.
 – Adults lay eggs in or on host.
Biocontrol
               – Aphid parasites
 Examples of
 parasites
 – Wasps                      Adult
                  ...
Biocontrol
                                  .
 Parasitic nematodes
 – Parasitic nematodesFigure
   1: Life cycle of Stein...
Biocontrol
                          • Tree and shrub
 Diseases                   insects
 – BT (Bacillus              •  ...
Biocontrol

 Diseases
 – BT (Bacillus thuringiensis) for insect control
 – Kurstaki strain (Biobit, Dipel, MVP,
   Steward...
Biocontrol

 Diseases
 – BT (Bacillus thuringiensis) for insect control
 – Israelensis strains (Vectobac, Skeetal,
   Gnat...
Biocontrol

 Diseases
 – BT (Bacillus thuringiensis) for insect control
 – San diego/tenebrionis strains (Trident, M-
   O...
Bioccontrol

 Use of plant pathogens for weed
 control??
 – Potential is being explored
 – Pathogens are harder to manipul...
Biocontrol

 Bioantagonists or biofungicides (plant
 disease control)
 4 mechanisms of action
 – Direct competition
 – Ant...
Biocontrol
                          – Trade names
 Bioantagonists or
                            • Deny
 biofungicides (p...
Chemical Control (IPM)

 Pesticides
 – Any chemical (natural or synthetic) that
   mitigates (kills, controls) a pest (ani...
Chemical Control (IPM)

 Herbicide
 – a chemical substance used to kill
   undesirable plants.
   • Will kill any plant no...
Chemical Control (IPM)

 Insecticide
 – a chemical substance used to kill
   undesirable insects.
Chemical Control (IPM)

 Fungicide
 – a chemical substance used to kill
   undesirable fungi.
Chemical Control (IPM)

 Miticide
 – a chemical substance used to kill
   undesirable mites.
 Acaracide
 – is a broader wa...
Chemical Control (IPM)

 Bactericide
 – a chemical substance used to kill
   undesirable bacteria.
Chemical Control (IPM)

 Molluscicide
 – a chemical substance used to kill
   undesirable pest mollusks.
    • Slugs
    •...
Chemical Control (IPM)

 Nematicide
 – a chemical substance used to kill
   undesirable pest nematodes.
   • Slugs
   • Sn...
Chemical Control (IPM)

 Rodenticide
 – a chemical substance used to kill
   undesirable rodents.
Chemical Control (IPM)

 Pesticides
 – SO WHAT’’S THE BIG DEAL????
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10 Good Ipmphc1

  1. 1. Maintaining Healthy Landscapes IPM/PHC
  2. 2. Integrated Pest Management IPM – an environmentally sensitive approach to controlling pests that does not rely totally on pesticides. – Focus is on the pest rather than on the plant. – PROPER PLANT CARE IS PART OF IPM
  3. 3. Plant Health Care PHC – A holistic system that focuses more on healthy landscapes rather than the pest. – Coined by the International Society of Arborists.
  4. 4. Pest Management NO MATTER WHAT YOU CALL IT, MAINTAINING A HEALTHY LANDSCAPE REQUIRES MUCH MORE THAN SPRAYING PESTS.
  5. 5. PHC 1. Know your plants – Culture/Care/Siting – Start right (soil preparation)
  6. 6. Black plastic under rock PHC Study the landscape slkj ecosystem – How does the Down spout soil/site influence the plant and/or pest? Black plastic under rock
  7. 7. PHC Determine key problem – Monitor, Scout – Identify/Diagnose Pest • Insect, Disease, Weed vs. Abiotic
  8. 8. PHC Optimize plant health – What’s being done wrong in the culture of plant? Fertility, water, etc. – If pest is present, is it primary or secondary?
  9. 9. IPM Step 0: Grow plant the right way (assumption) Step 1: Monitor, Scout Step 2: Identify pest Step 3: Manage pest using the knowledge of – why is pest present – life cycle of pest
  10. 10. Pest Management (IPM) Cultural control Mechanical control (Physical control) Biological control Chemical control – pesticide use • used as a last resort IN CONJUCTION WITH CULTURAL, MECHANICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CONTROLS
  11. 11. Cultural Control (IPM) Same as PHC steps of – know your plants – study landscape ecosystem – optimize plant health
  12. 12. Cultural Control (IPM) Sanitation - removal of insect infested, diseased plant parts. Clean up plant debris. Modify the environment (so pest is not favored, plant health is)
  13. 13. Cultural Control (IPM) Modification of environment – Induced competition • ie encourage dense ground covers to reduce weeds by competition – Water management • ie avoid over watering, avoid water on leaf surface by watering – Selective pruning/spacing • to open up plantings and allow for more air circulation
  14. 14. Mechanical Control (IPM) Physically removing a pest or infested plant – Washing off aphids with a garden hose – pulling a weed Physical barriers – using row covers, screen, etc.
  15. 15. Biological Control (IPM) Natural control Predators Parasites Diseases Bioantagonists
  16. 16. Biocontrol Natural control – Weather extremes • freeze • wind • rain
  17. 17. Biocontrol Predators (insect control) – insects or spiders that require several prey to complete their development • Predatory beetles • Lacewings • Flies • True bugs • Wasps • Spiders and mites
  18. 18. Biocontrol Eggs Examples of predators – Ladybird beetles Larva Adult
  19. 19. Biocontrol Eggs Examples of predators – Green lacewing Adult Larva
  20. 20. Biocontrol – Hunting wasp Examples of predators – Predatory stinkbug
  21. 21. Biocontrol Parasites – Require one host to complete development. – Adults lay eggs in or on host.
  22. 22. Biocontrol – Aphid parasites Examples of parasites – Wasps Adult wasp Aphid mummy Larva
  23. 23. Biocontrol . Parasitic nematodes – Parasitic nematodesFigure 1: Life cycle of Steinernema nematodes. 1, 2: invasion and colonization of insect. 3,4: development within insect. 5: exit from dead insect and invasion of new host. Drawing courtesy of University of Illinois
  24. 24. Biocontrol • Tree and shrub Diseases insects – BT (Bacillus • Tent caterpillars. • thuringiensis) for Fall webworm. • Leafrollers. insect control • Red-humped – Kurstaki strain caterpillar. • (Biobit, Dipel, MVP, Spiny elm caterpillar. Steward, Thuricide, • Western spruce etc.): budworm. • Pine budworm. • Pine butterfly.
  25. 25. Biocontrol Diseases – BT (Bacillus thuringiensis) for insect control – Kurstaki strain (Biobit, Dipel, MVP, Steward, Thuricide, etc.): • Vegetable insects • Cabbage worms (cabbage looper, imported cabbageworm, diamondback moth, etc.). • Tomato and tobacco hornworm.
  26. 26. Biocontrol Diseases – BT (Bacillus thuringiensis) for insect control – Israelensis strains (Vectobac, Skeetal, Gnatrol, Bactimos, etc.) • Mosquito. • Black fly. • Fungus gnats
  27. 27. Biocontrol Diseases – BT (Bacillus thuringiensis) for insect control – San diego/tenebrionis strains (Trident, M- One, M-Trak, Foil, Novodor, etc.) • Colorado potato beetle. • Elm leaf beetle. • Cottonwood leaf beetle.
  28. 28. Bioccontrol Use of plant pathogens for weed control?? – Potential is being explored – Pathogens are harder to manipulate – Don’t give high mortality rates
  29. 29. Biocontrol Bioantagonists or biofungicides (plant disease control) 4 mechanisms of action – Direct competition – Antibiosis – Predation or parasitism – Induced resistance
  30. 30. Biocontrol – Trade names Bioantagonists or • Deny biofungicides (plant • Kodiak disease control) • MycoStop – For soilborne • Root Shield/Plant diseases Shield – Are preventive • SoilGard – Do not work well at high pathogen levels
  31. 31. Chemical Control (IPM) Pesticides – Any chemical (natural or synthetic) that mitigates (kills, controls) a pest (animal or plant, etc)
  32. 32. Chemical Control (IPM) Herbicide – a chemical substance used to kill undesirable plants. • Will kill any plant not just weeds
  33. 33. Chemical Control (IPM) Insecticide – a chemical substance used to kill undesirable insects.
  34. 34. Chemical Control (IPM) Fungicide – a chemical substance used to kill undesirable fungi.
  35. 35. Chemical Control (IPM) Miticide – a chemical substance used to kill undesirable mites. Acaracide – is a broader way to define this….. • Kills spiders, ticks and mites
  36. 36. Chemical Control (IPM) Bactericide – a chemical substance used to kill undesirable bacteria.
  37. 37. Chemical Control (IPM) Molluscicide – a chemical substance used to kill undesirable pest mollusks. • Slugs • Snails
  38. 38. Chemical Control (IPM) Nematicide – a chemical substance used to kill undesirable pest nematodes. • Slugs • Snails
  39. 39. Chemical Control (IPM) Rodenticide – a chemical substance used to kill undesirable rodents.
  40. 40. Chemical Control (IPM) Pesticides – SO WHAT’’S THE BIG DEAL????

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