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Color In Garden Design For Montrose Botanical

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Color In Garden Design For Montrose Botanical

  1. 1. Presented for the Montrose Botanical Society 3/09 Sheryl Williams MG, Instructor Horticulture Delta Montrose Tech College [email_address]
  2. 2. <ul><li>Color changes with light changes </li></ul><ul><li>We want to know ‘why’ we like a garden </li></ul><ul><li>Designs are combinations of texture, form and color </li></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>Teach you the common language used to describe color combinations </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to identify colors and understand their relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Explore color combinations </li></ul>
  4. 6. <ul><li>Difficult to describe the color of a flower or leaf </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to describe the relationship of colors to each other </li></ul><ul><li>Goal of color systems is to provide a standard reference and to organize color relationships </li></ul>
  5. 7. ‘ Blue Boy’ Dianthus ‘ Blue Elf’ Delphinium
  6. 8. <ul><li>Color in light is not the same as color in paint </li></ul><ul><li>Not the same as color in fabric or printing </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Colorant System’ tells how to mix pigments or dyes to achieve a particular color </li></ul><ul><li>This is what we learn in school – to add white paint to lighten a color, etc. </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Munsell – standard for how we “see” </li></ul><ul><li>Royal Horticulture Society </li></ul><ul><li>Da-sh Board </li></ul><ul><li>Color wheels </li></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Used as a standard for color notation in artistic, commercial, scientific and education work </li></ul><ul><li>Based on how people ‘see’ </li></ul><ul><li>Quantifies a color in terms of three qualities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chroma </li></ul></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>Hue is the name of the color family, such as red or blue. </li></ul><ul><li>Value is the lightness or darkness of a color. </li></ul><ul><li>Chroma (Saturation) is the intensity or strength of a color . </li></ul>
  10. 12. <ul><li>Value is the vertical axis changing from black at the bottom to white at the top </li></ul><ul><li>0 is pure black </li></ul><ul><li>10 is pure white </li></ul>
  11. 13. <ul><li>Chroma is the ‘saturation’ of the color from weak to vivid </li></ul><ul><li>There is no set range </li></ul>
  12. 14. <ul><li>First developed in 1966, the RHS system uses a set of “paint chips” each with a small hole in the center. </li></ul><ul><li>The color strip is placed over the leaf or blossom and is matched by peering through the hole. </li></ul><ul><li>In all there are 884 different colors arranged in four fans. </li></ul>
  13. 18. <ul><li>Chromatic Colors </li></ul><ul><li>Visible spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Notice that Violet and red have the least and most wavelengths but are next to each other in a color wheel </li></ul><ul><li>Notice there is no red-purple </li></ul>
  14. 19.
  15. 22. <ul><li>Light from the sun or the sky </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight casts a yellow tone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skylight casts a blue tone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Haze and fog cast a whitish film </li></ul><ul><li>Hot summer’s day bleaches out many colors </li></ul><ul><li>Snow and ice have a bluish cast from the reflected sky light </li></ul><ul><li>End of the day – near blacks and white </li></ul>
  16. 24. <ul><li>Usually pale yellow green or bluish green </li></ul><ul><li>Textural elements cause the ‘gray’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hairs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wax </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distance </li></ul>
  17. 26. <ul><li>Used to describe color </li></ul><ul><li>Hue - location on the color spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Value – lightness or darkness of the color </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be lightened or darkened without losing their essential quality of hue </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Saturation – color content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can vary from almost neutral gray to a pure hue </li></ul></ul>
  18. 28. <ul><li>Major </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>purple </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Minor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow-red </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green-yellow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue-green </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purple-blue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red-purple </li></ul></ul>
  19. 29. <ul><li>Monochromatic plantings are nearly impossible because there is usually more than one hue </li></ul><ul><li>Flowers have foliage, stamens & pistils, stems, edging, etc. </li></ul>
  20. 31. <ul><li>Fall between the basic hues </li></ul><ul><li>More complex </li></ul><ul><li>More easily influenced by neighboring hues than the basic hues are </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. a hue that is blue-green will look bluer or greener depending on its surrounding hues </li></ul><ul><li>Intermediate hues are more influenced by their surrounding hues than surroundings are influenced by them </li></ul>
  21. 32. <ul><li>Can be confusing </li></ul><ul><li>Purple with some blue content are often called ‘blue’ </li></ul><ul><li>Purple with some red content are often called ‘pink’ if they are light and ‘magenta’ if they are dark </li></ul><ul><li>Purple foliage is more varied </li></ul>
  22. 34. <ul><li>High levels of contrast – black to white- </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exciting and draw the eye </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be busy or distracting </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low levels of contrast – shades of gray </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Soothing and restful </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be boring and dull </li></ul></ul>
  23. 37. <ul><li>High hue contrast – color opposite or nearly opposite each other on a color wheel </li></ul>
  24. 40. <ul><li>Display gardens used to attract people’s attention </li></ul><ul><li>Informal and unsophisticated such as a children’s garden or wildflower meadow </li></ul><ul><li>If the value or saturation is constant the impact of the high hue may be lessened </li></ul>
  25. 42. <ul><li>Color next to or near each other on the color wheel </li></ul><ul><li>Low contrast gardens </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unified when a flower color is kept nearly constant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention focused on the dominant hue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From a distance looks like a large mass of color </li></ul></ul>
  26. 46. <ul><li>Brightness, lightness or luminosity </li></ul><ul><li>White light reflects everything so it is called ‘high value’ </li></ul><ul><li>Black light absorbs everything so it is called ‘low value’ </li></ul>
  27. 47. <ul><li>Used to determine the amount of value </li></ul><ul><li>You can use a gray scale instead of having a whole set of color chips </li></ul>
  28. 48. Five values on the shadow ball 10 is white and 1 is black
  29. 49. <ul><li>Each hue has it’s own inherent value </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow – very light, can only be lightened a bit before it becomes white </li></ul><ul><li>Purple – very dark, can only be darkend a bit before it becomes black </li></ul>
  30. 50. <ul><li>Most simplistic is a plant that is in part shade and part light </li></ul><ul><li>The hue has not changed but the value has </li></ul>
  31. 51. <ul><li>Many designers say that it is easier to lay out the structure of a garden in winter when the color of flowers and foliage do not distract from the importance of good strong organization. </li></ul><ul><li>A well-designed garden will stand up to being photographed in black and white </li></ul><ul><li>A composition of lights and darks </li></ul>
  32. 55. Yellow 9 Green-yellow 7 Yellow-red 7 Green 6 Blue-green 5 Blue 4 Red 4 Purple blue 3 Red-purple 3 Purple 2
  33. 57. <ul><li>You need more of a darker color to balance a lighter color </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Yellow and purple </li></ul><ul><li>You can add more purple to balance </li></ul><ul><li>You can darken the yellow and lighten the purple </li></ul><ul><li>If pure hue, it takes 3-4 times as much purple to balance the yellow </li></ul>
  34. 59. <ul><li>It doesn’t guarantee success but it does make you pay attention to value </li></ul><ul><li>Perfectly balanced can be boring </li></ul><ul><li>Unbalanced can be exciting </li></ul>
  35. 60. <ul><li>Painters use the word ‘tint’ for light colors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They add white pigment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Light colors appear to advance toward the observer when the background is dark </li></ul><ul><li>May appear to be larger than darker counterparts </li></ul><ul><li>Give a feeling of openness and space </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Room with light walls vs. dark walls </li></ul>
  36. 61. <ul><li>Dark hedges, tall plantings, fences – walls </li></ul><ul><li>Light of the sky or dark canopy of foliage overhead </li></ul><ul><li>Can use trees with a light canopy, such as honeylocust, or trim up to let in more light </li></ul><ul><li>A pergola can be dark or painted a light color </li></ul>
  37. 62. <ul><li>Show up best on dark backgrounds </li></ul><ul><li>Light colors can get lost in strong sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>Light colors can get lost around highly reflective surfaces such as concrete, marble and light stone </li></ul><ul><li>Increase the green in the garden to avoid a sense of heat and glare </li></ul>
  38. 64. <ul><li>Sometimes called shades </li></ul><ul><li>Most pure hues can be darkened only one or two steps before they become grayed </li></ul><ul><li>Like shadows and shade – darker and grayer </li></ul><ul><li>In the garden, dark colors tend not to be seen very well against a dark green background, especially when seen from a distance </li></ul>
  39. 66. <ul><li>Lighter background of concrete and buildings makes dark colors show up quite well </li></ul><ul><li>Areas in sun appear washed out when seen from a shaded point of view </li></ul>
  40. 67. <ul><li>Scenes with high contrast of value (many lights & darks) will be dramatic and eye-catching </li></ul><ul><li>If the value contrast is too extreme it will be ‘busy’ </li></ul><ul><li>Some gardens tire you out trying to focus </li></ul><ul><li>Some gardens are difficult to discern between objects </li></ul>
  41. 68. <ul><li>Sun to shade adaptation takes longer than shade to sun </li></ul><ul><li>Transitional zone where value differences are not great can help the eye adapt more comfortably </li></ul>
  42. 69. <ul><li>If you want to highlight an item make the background darker </li></ul><ul><li>Select paving material based on value </li></ul>
  43. 71. <ul><li>Also called intensity, purity, brilliance or chroma </li></ul><ul><li>Pure hues are the most saturated of colors </li></ul><ul><li>Grays are the least saturated </li></ul>
  44. 72. <ul><li>Brick – orange or red low saturation and medium value </li></ul><ul><li>Brown mulch – orange with low saturation and low value </li></ul>
  45. 74. <ul><li>If you start with gray and added red little by little until you reached the pure hue of red you would understand the steps of saturation of a color </li></ul><ul><li>From unsaturated to saturated </li></ul>
  46. 76. <ul><li>Reds and yellow want your attention </li></ul><ul><li>Surrounding colors have a strong influence on saturation as do distance and illumination </li></ul><ul><li>Distance tends to gray colors </li></ul><ul><li>Type and position of the light source will affect the appearance of saturation </li></ul>
  47. 78. <ul><li>Can see colors at full saturation when you get close </li></ul><ul><li>Blocks out competition of other colors </li></ul><ul><li>If you want the affect of the saturation let people get close and minimize distraction </li></ul><ul><li>Smaller flowers – get closer </li></ul><ul><li>Drooping flowers – place above </li></ul><ul><li>Flowers that face up should be below the observer </li></ul>
  48. 79. <ul><li>If placed in the background – flattens space, makes the distance appear closer </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used for large gardens to draw someone to a far spot or unusual location </li></ul><ul><li>Vivid color makes you want to go to it </li></ul>
  49. 81. <ul><li>Often used as entrance plantings in public places where maximum attention is wanted </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated hues of reds, oranges, and yellows, as well as peach, pink, and gold are most clearly seen against a background </li></ul><ul><li>Dark values need a lighter background </li></ul>
  50. 85. <ul><li>Bark, soils and stone are even less saturated are seen as grays and browns </li></ul><ul><li>Grays and browns are quite subtle and are sensed but not always recognized </li></ul>
  51. 86. <ul><li>Grayed yellows, oranges and reds are beige tan and buff </li></ul><ul><li>Warm grays and cool grays </li></ul>
  52. 88. <ul><li>Putting grayed colors in the back of a border and saturated colors in the foreground increases the apparent depth </li></ul><ul><li>Reversing the relationship flattens the space </li></ul><ul><li>Colors appear gray at low light levels </li></ul>
  53. 89. <ul><li>Contrast of grayed colors with colors with a high color content </li></ul><ul><li>Low saturation contrast occurs when most of the colors in the garden are either grayed or pure </li></ul>
  54. 91. <ul><li>Grayed foliage and bark good for intensely colored flowers </li></ul><ul><li>Grayed and darker oranges and reds of brick and wood and warm cool grays of stone </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t compete with pure hues for attention </li></ul>
  55. 93. <ul><li>Pastels high value; high saturation </li></ul><ul><li>Pale high value; low saturation </li></ul><ul><li>Vivid natural value; high saturation </li></ul><ul><li>Rich low value; high saturation </li></ul><ul><li>Muted medium value; low saturation </li></ul><ul><li>Backgrounds </li></ul>
  56. 94. <ul><li>High value; high saturation </li></ul><ul><li>Light & bright </li></ul><ul><li>Used with lots of green foliage </li></ul><ul><li>Effective in part or full shade </li></ul><ul><li>Have enough hue so hue combinations are important </li></ul>                                              
  57. 96. <ul><li>Variegated plants can look like pastels </li></ul><ul><li>Appear washed out in bright sun esp. if the background colors are not rich or deep color </li></ul><ul><li>Pastels can disappear in light colored surroundings </li></ul><ul><li>Add green foliage or darker colors esp. around the edges </li></ul>
  58. 101. <ul><li>High value; low saturation </li></ul><ul><li>Light but not bright </li></ul><ul><li>Hard to tell difference between pastel and pale in the garden </li></ul><ul><li>Used for background or connecting colors, furniture </li></ul><ul><li>Fading flowers </li></ul><ul><li>Hard to use in full sunlight </li></ul><ul><li>Add foliage </li></ul>                       
  59. 106. <ul><li>Usually noticed first </li></ul><ul><li>Bedding plants to attract attention </li></ul><ul><li>Seen at a distance – highway plantings </li></ul><ul><li>Accents in pots or planters </li></ul><ul><li>Will look more vivid if background is less saturated or if values are different or if complementary or contrasting hues are used </li></ul>                                              
  60. 108. <ul><li>Low value; high saturation </li></ul><ul><li>Dark, full of color </li></ul><ul><li>Best close up </li></ul><ul><li>Loses impact with distance </li></ul><ul><li>Best with light background </li></ul><ul><li>Because they are so dark you can include many colors without feeling busy </li></ul><ul><li>Strongly unified </li></ul>                       
  61. 113. <ul><li>Low saturation; medium value </li></ul><ul><li>More gray than other colors </li></ul><ul><li>Darker than pale but lighter than dark grays </li></ul><ul><li>Good contrast to brightly hued flowers or foliage </li></ul><ul><li>Used for transitions </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t attract much attention </li></ul><ul><li>Appear farther away </li></ul><ul><li>Overcast skies will mute other colors </li></ul>                                                                      
  62. 117. <ul><li>They determine how the other colors will appear </li></ul><ul><li>Masses of trees, colors of the sky </li></ul><ul><li>Grass, mulch, gravel, ground surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Stone brick wood and manmade background seen from the garden </li></ul>
  63. 121. <ul><li>Warm Colors </li></ul><ul><li>Red </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow </li></ul><ul><li>Magenta or red-purple </li></ul><ul><li>Colors with red in them appear warm </li></ul><ul><li>Warm colors advance and cool colors recede </li></ul>
  64. 123. Hue Warm Cool Yellow Orange (yellow-red) Yellow-green Orange Yellow Red Purple Red blue
  65. 124. <ul><li>Warm during cool seasons </li></ul><ul><li>Advance </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow and orange spring bulbs </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow and red fall leaves </li></ul>
  66. 125. <ul><li>Have blue in them </li></ul><ul><li>Green </li></ul><ul><li>Blue </li></ul><ul><li>Violet </li></ul><ul><li>Coolest in the blue-green area </li></ul>
  67. 126. Hue Warm Cool Green Yellow-Green Blue-green Blue Blue-Green Blue-purple Purple Red-purple Blue-purple
  68. 127. <ul><li>Most greens are yellow-green </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of thinking yellow-green and blue-green think warm and cool </li></ul><ul><li>Cool colors are easy to live with </li></ul><ul><li>Popular in HOT climates </li></ul>
  69. 128. <ul><li>We don’t have true monochromatic because of the color of foliage </li></ul><ul><li>I like it </li></ul><ul><li>Fun </li></ul><ul><li>Easy </li></ul>
  70. 133. <ul><li>Closely related on the color wheel </li></ul><ul><li>Next or near each other </li></ul><ul><li>True analogous rarely occur in the garden because of the green foliage </li></ul><ul><li>Designers are described analogous flower colors </li></ul><ul><li>From a distance can look like a mass of a single color </li></ul>
  71. 139. <ul><li>Greatest amount of hue contrast </li></ul><ul><li>Opposite each other on the color wheel </li></ul><ul><li>In a garden usually more colors involved </li></ul><ul><li>Visually exciting at high levels of saturation </li></ul><ul><li>If value or saturation is changed the background will have a large effect </li></ul>
  72. 144. <ul><li>If you would like to learn more </li></ul><ul><li>Hands on experience </li></ul><ul><li>Develop “plant palette’s” for our area </li></ul><ul><li>Planting Design </li></ul><ul><li>March 30-April 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Noon-4 pm, daily </li></ul><ul><li>Cost is around $120 </li></ul><ul><li>Call 874-7671 </li></ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul>

Editor's Notes