Colonial Development

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American colonial development

American colonial development

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  • 1. Colonial Development C. Sharbutt
  • 2. INFLUENCES FROM ENGLAND’S EARLY GOVERNMENT
  • 3. Limited and Representative Government
    • England was ruled by a monarch with influence of noble families
    • Land was given to nobles in exchange for
      • Loyalty
      • Taxes
      • Military support
    • 1215 Nobles rebelled and forced the king to
    • sign the Magna Carta
  • 4. Magna Carta
    • Protected nobles’ rights and gave certain rights to all landholders
    • Rights included
      • Equal treatment under the law
      • Trial by one’s peers
      • Guaranteed that no one would be above the law…not even the king
  • 5. Birth of the legislature
    • Henry III followed King John and had a group of nobles who advised him
    • Group increased in size and included representatives of the common people
    • By 1300s this became a legislature , known as Parliament
  • 6. Glorious Revolution
    • 1688 Parliament removed King James II from throne
    • Placed his daughter Mary and her husband William on the throne
    • Peaceful change in power and led to the English Bill of Rights
  • 7. Glorious Revolution
  • 8. English Bill of Rights
    • After the Glorious Revolution Parliament was stronger than the monarch
    • 1689 Parliament creates the English Bill of Rights
      • Monarch could not place taxes or create an army without the consent of Parliament
      • Members of Parliament would be elected
      • Citizens gained the right to a fair trial by a jury
      • Outlawed cruel and unusual punishment
  • 9. Common Law
    • English had no written laws
    • Laws were based on the decisions of the courts and precedent set by court decisions
    • The system of law became known as common law and based on court decisions
    • Would be foundation of laws in the US
  • 10. BRINGING THE ENGLISH HERITAGE TO AMERICA
  • 11. Colonial America
    • 1600s and 1700s, England was setting up colonies in America
    • Early colonists in America were loyal to England
    • The first permanent settlement in North America was Jamestown
      • Jamestown was settled with a charter from the Virginia Company
  • 12. Jamestown
    • Governed by a governor and a council appointed by the Virginia Company
    • 1619 colonists chose two representatives from each community to meet with the governor and the council (called burgesses)
      • Made up House of Burgesses (lawmaking body)
        • Start of self government in American colonies
  • 13. Plymouth
    • 1620 Pilgrims settled Plymouth in what is now Massachusetts
    • Arrived in America on the Mayflower
    • On the way decided a written plan of government was needed and signed the Mayflower Compact
  • 14. Mayflower Compact
    • Stated that the government would set up just laws for the good of the colony
    • The people who signed promised to obey these laws
    • Set up a direct democracy and allowed all men to vote
    • Called for majority rule
  • 15. Early Colonial Governments
    • Each colony set up its own government
    • Each had a governor
    • The governor was either elected by the colonists or appointed by the English monarch.
    • Each had a legislature
    • Free adult males elected the members of the legislature
    • Most were modeled after the English Parliament
  • 16. Great Britain
    • The English monarch and Parliament were paying attention to other matters
    • England became known as Great Britain in 1707, when the country united with Scotland
    • The colonists soon became used to taking care of themselves and making their own decisions. This would cause problems when Great Britain began to interfere.
  • 17. Road to Revolution
  • 18. The Birth of Democratic Nation
  • 19. Increased Gov’t Control
    • Mid 1700s Great Britain becomes more involved in the colonies
    • GB operates on the principle of mercantilism
      • A country should sell more goods to other countries than it buys
      • Expectation that the colonies would provide raw materials AND purchase goods from GB (at an increased price)
  • 20. 1763 GB won the French and Indian War
    • Gained French territory in the colonies
    • War was very costly
    • American colonies were taxed and resented it
      • Ex. Stamp Act (1765) tax on newspapers and legal documents
      • Colonists resent not having representation in British gov’t
      • Protest (No taxation w/o representation)
  • 21. Protests worked
    • But temporary
    • Stamp Act repealed but other taxes put in place
    • Townshend Acts (1767)
      • Taxes on things the colonists imported such as tea, paper, lead
      • 1773 Tea Act- more taxes
  • 22. Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts)
    • Limited the rights of colonists
    • Limited the right of trial by jury
    • Allowed British troops to search and move into colonists homes
  • 23. Means of Colonial Protest
    • Propaganda pamphlets (in their writings)
    • Literal protesting- in the streets (mild)
    • Boycott (influenced repeal of some taxes)
    • Harass the tax collectors
    • Raids on products (Ex. Boston Tea Party
      • More aggressive
      • Meet and discuss
  • 24. MOVEMENT TOWARD INDEPENDENCE
  • 25. September 1774
    • 12 colonies send delegates to Philadelphia
      • PURPOSE- to discuss concerns
    • First Continental Congress
    • Send documents to King George III to demand the restoration of their individual rights
    • Colonists also decide to continue boycott and to meet again if GB does not meet demands
  • 26. King’s Response
    • Military action (April 1775)
    • British and Colonists fight two battles in Massachusetts
      • Lexington and Concord
      • First battles of the Revolutionary War
  • 27. May 1775
    • Second Continental Congress
      • Some favor independence
      • Some fear there is no way the colonists could defeat Britain
      • Some are still loyal to GB
      • As they debate independence becomes a dominant goal
  • 28. Common Sense
    • January 1776
    • Published by Thomas Paine
    • Called for complete independence from Britain
    • More than half of the delegates at the Second Continental Congress agree with Paine- independence will be declared.
  • 29. Declaration of Independence
    • Second Continental Congress acts as the government of the colonies
    • Committee is established to create a document declaring America’s independence
    • Thomas Jefferson wrote most of the Declaration of Independence
  • 30.
    • Explained why the colonies wanted independence
    • Included colonists’ beliefs about individual rights
      • Government is based on the consent of the people
      • If government ignores the rights of the people the people have the right to overthrow the government
    • Influenced by the ideas of John Locke (an English philosopher)
  • 31. July 4, 1776
    • The Second Continental Congress approved The Declaration
    • Freedom for the colonies would come after the end of the Revolutionary War and Great Britain recognized the United States as an independent nation
  • 32. THE NATION’S FIRST GOVERNMENTS
    • State Constitutions
    • Articles of Confederation
    • Constitution
  • 33. Early State Constitutions
    • Colonies began to replace colonial charters with new constitutions
    • Constitution
      • A written plan for government
      • Sets up the powers and limitations of government
  • 34. New Hampshire became the first colony to write a constitution
    • By 1780 the other colonies did also.
    New Hampshire
  • 35. Early Constitutions
    • Each state government included a legislature
    • Most were bicameral (2 houses)
    • Each had a state governor whose job was to carry out laws
    • Each had judges and courts to interpret the law
    • Many included a bill of rights that guaranteed citizens certain basic freedoms
  • 36. Massachusetts
    • Last to draw up a constitution and it was a little different
    • Power was divided among the legislature, governor, and courts
    • Governor and courts were given the power to check the legislature
    • The constitution was created through a special convention of delegates instead of by the legislature
    • State citizens then approved the constitution
    • The Massachusetts constitution would later become the model for the US Constitution
  • 37. THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION