Colonial Development


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American colonial development

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Colonial Development

  1. 1. Colonial Development C. Sharbutt
  3. 3. Limited and Representative Government <ul><li>England was ruled by a monarch with influence of noble families </li></ul><ul><li>Land was given to nobles in exchange for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loyalty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military support </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1215 Nobles rebelled and forced the king to </li></ul><ul><li>sign the Magna Carta </li></ul>
  4. 4. Magna Carta <ul><li>Protected nobles’ rights and gave certain rights to all landholders </li></ul><ul><li>Rights included </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Equal treatment under the law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trial by one’s peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guaranteed that no one would be above the law…not even the king </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Birth of the legislature <ul><li>Henry III followed King John and had a group of nobles who advised him </li></ul><ul><li>Group increased in size and included representatives of the common people </li></ul><ul><li>By 1300s this became a legislature , known as Parliament </li></ul>
  6. 6. Glorious Revolution <ul><li>1688 Parliament removed King James II from throne </li></ul><ul><li>Placed his daughter Mary and her husband William on the throne </li></ul><ul><li>Peaceful change in power and led to the English Bill of Rights </li></ul>
  7. 7. Glorious Revolution
  8. 8. English Bill of Rights <ul><li>After the Glorious Revolution Parliament was stronger than the monarch </li></ul><ul><li>1689 Parliament creates the English Bill of Rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Monarch could not place taxes or create an army without the consent of Parliament </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Members of Parliament would be elected </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizens gained the right to a fair trial by a jury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outlawed cruel and unusual punishment </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Common Law <ul><li>English had no written laws </li></ul><ul><li>Laws were based on the decisions of the courts and precedent set by court decisions </li></ul><ul><li>The system of law became known as common law and based on court decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Would be foundation of laws in the US </li></ul>
  11. 11. Colonial America <ul><li>1600s and 1700s, England was setting up colonies in America </li></ul><ul><li>Early colonists in America were loyal to England </li></ul><ul><li>The first permanent settlement in North America was Jamestown </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jamestown was settled with a charter from the Virginia Company </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Jamestown <ul><li>Governed by a governor and a council appointed by the Virginia Company </li></ul><ul><li>1619 colonists chose two representatives from each community to meet with the governor and the council (called burgesses) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made up House of Burgesses (lawmaking body) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Start of self government in American colonies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Plymouth <ul><li>1620 Pilgrims settled Plymouth in what is now Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><li>Arrived in America on the Mayflower </li></ul><ul><li>On the way decided a written plan of government was needed and signed the Mayflower Compact </li></ul>
  14. 14. Mayflower Compact <ul><li>Stated that the government would set up just laws for the good of the colony </li></ul><ul><li>The people who signed promised to obey these laws </li></ul><ul><li>Set up a direct democracy and allowed all men to vote </li></ul><ul><li>Called for majority rule </li></ul>
  15. 15. Early Colonial Governments <ul><li>Each colony set up its own government </li></ul><ul><li>Each had a governor </li></ul><ul><li>The governor was either elected by the colonists or appointed by the English monarch. </li></ul><ul><li>Each had a legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Free adult males elected the members of the legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Most were modeled after the English Parliament </li></ul>
  16. 16. Great Britain <ul><li>The English monarch and Parliament were paying attention to other matters </li></ul><ul><li>England became known as Great Britain in 1707, when the country united with Scotland </li></ul><ul><li>The colonists soon became used to taking care of themselves and making their own decisions. This would cause problems when Great Britain began to interfere. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Road to Revolution
  18. 18. The Birth of Democratic Nation
  19. 19. Increased Gov’t Control <ul><li>Mid 1700s Great Britain becomes more involved in the colonies </li></ul><ul><li>GB operates on the principle of mercantilism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A country should sell more goods to other countries than it buys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Expectation that the colonies would provide raw materials AND purchase goods from GB (at an increased price) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. 1763 GB won the French and Indian War <ul><li>Gained French territory in the colonies </li></ul><ul><li>War was very costly </li></ul><ul><li>American colonies were taxed and resented it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Stamp Act (1765) tax on newspapers and legal documents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Colonists resent not having representation in British gov’t </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protest (No taxation w/o representation) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Protests worked <ul><li>But temporary </li></ul><ul><li>Stamp Act repealed but other taxes put in place </li></ul><ul><li>Townshend Acts (1767) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taxes on things the colonists imported such as tea, paper, lead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1773 Tea Act- more taxes </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Coercive Acts (Intolerable Acts) <ul><li>Limited the rights of colonists </li></ul><ul><li>Limited the right of trial by jury </li></ul><ul><li>Allowed British troops to search and move into colonists homes </li></ul>
  23. 23. Means of Colonial Protest <ul><li>Propaganda pamphlets (in their writings) </li></ul><ul><li>Literal protesting- in the streets (mild) </li></ul><ul><li>Boycott (influenced repeal of some taxes) </li></ul><ul><li>Harass the tax collectors </li></ul><ul><li>Raids on products (Ex. Boston Tea Party </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More aggressive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet and discuss </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. September 1774 <ul><li>12 colonies send delegates to Philadelphia </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PURPOSE- to discuss concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>First Continental Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Send documents to King George III to demand the restoration of their individual rights </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists also decide to continue boycott and to meet again if GB does not meet demands </li></ul>
  26. 26. King’s Response <ul><li>Military action (April 1775) </li></ul><ul><li>British and Colonists fight two battles in Massachusetts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lexington and Concord </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First battles of the Revolutionary War </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. May 1775 <ul><li>Second Continental Congress </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some favor independence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some fear there is no way the colonists could defeat Britain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some are still loyal to GB </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As they debate independence becomes a dominant goal </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Common Sense <ul><li>January 1776 </li></ul><ul><li>Published by Thomas Paine </li></ul><ul><li>Called for complete independence from Britain </li></ul><ul><li>More than half of the delegates at the Second Continental Congress agree with Paine- independence will be declared. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Declaration of Independence <ul><li>Second Continental Congress acts as the government of the colonies </li></ul><ul><li>Committee is established to create a document declaring America’s independence </li></ul><ul><li>Thomas Jefferson wrote most of the Declaration of Independence </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Explained why the colonies wanted independence </li></ul><ul><li>Included colonists’ beliefs about individual rights </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government is based on the consent of the people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If government ignores the rights of the people the people have the right to overthrow the government </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Influenced by the ideas of John Locke (an English philosopher) </li></ul>
  31. 31. July 4, 1776 <ul><li>The Second Continental Congress approved The Declaration </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom for the colonies would come after the end of the Revolutionary War and Great Britain recognized the United States as an independent nation </li></ul>
  32. 32. THE NATION’S FIRST GOVERNMENTS <ul><li>State Constitutions </li></ul><ul><li>Articles of Confederation </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution </li></ul>
  33. 33. Early State Constitutions <ul><li>Colonies began to replace colonial charters with new constitutions </li></ul><ul><li>Constitution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A written plan for government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sets up the powers and limitations of government </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. New Hampshire became the first colony to write a constitution <ul><li>By 1780 the other colonies did also. </li></ul>New Hampshire
  35. 35. Early Constitutions <ul><li>Each state government included a legislature </li></ul><ul><li>Most were bicameral (2 houses) </li></ul><ul><li>Each had a state governor whose job was to carry out laws </li></ul><ul><li>Each had judges and courts to interpret the law </li></ul><ul><li>Many included a bill of rights that guaranteed citizens certain basic freedoms </li></ul>
  36. 36. Massachusetts <ul><li>Last to draw up a constitution and it was a little different </li></ul><ul><li>Power was divided among the legislature, governor, and courts </li></ul><ul><li>Governor and courts were given the power to check the legislature </li></ul><ul><li>The constitution was created through a special convention of delegates instead of by the legislature </li></ul><ul><li>State citizens then approved the constitution </li></ul><ul><li>The Massachusetts constitution would later become the model for the US Constitution </li></ul>