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  • 1. Principles of Training
  • 2. Frequency
    • Basic health related fitness 3-4 x per week
    • The greater the aerobic component of the event, the more frequent the training
    • Non endurance athletes frequency 3x per week
    • Most endurance athletes frequency 4-6 x per week
    • Dangers of over training. Injury boredom, poor technique burnout.
    • Dangers of under training. Loss of motivation, poor or no improvement
  • 3. Intensity
    • How hard should I be training.
    • Why do we need to train at the correct intensity?
    • Correct intensity provides sustained improvements in performance due to physiological adaptations.
    • Too much and we risk injury and burn out
    • To little and the gains are small if at all
    • By manipulating frequency and intensity we can overload the system thereby making improvements.
    • Intensity is measured by Heart rate. Perceived exertion rate PER, Repetition max. RM, Subjective measures of feelings
  • 4. Duration
    • The length of time we train. The time of stimulation.
    • By manipulating duration and intensity we can overload the systems and make adaptations.
    • As fitness increases, duration needs to increase if you wish to improve.
    • Because without it adaptations/ improvements will slow down or cease. This means the athlete needs to devote more time to training.
  • 5. Overload
    • Foundation principle behind all training programmes
    • Overload leads to training gains.
    • The higher the level of conditioning the greater the overload required.
    • By varying frequency, duration and intensity we can apply overload.
  • 6. Specificity
    • You get what you train for
    • You should train the :
    • energy systems
    • muscles groups
    • Specific to the sport/activity being played
  • 7. Adaptation
    • The body will adapt in response to:
    • Frequency of training
    • Intensity of training
    • Duration of training
    • Specificity of training
    • Adaptations tend to occur early on training. As time progresses, gains made tend to become smaller this is known as the law of diminishing returns.
    • You need to increase the level of overload as the level of improvement/ conditioning increases
    • Physiological adaptations.. Increases heart volume, increase lung volume, more slow twitch muscle fibres, increased blood volume, increased RBC’s
  • 8. Regularity
    • Regularity is closely linked to frequency of training.
    • Adaptations will only be achieved if training is regular
    • There has to be consistent and regular exercising of muscles and energy systems if you want to improve.
  • 9. Reversibility
    • The longer the build up, the slower the loss.
  • 10. Generalisation before specialisation
    • Core Fitness components:
    • Cardio – respiratory endurance
    • Strength
    • Flexibility
    • Is important before skill specialisation.
    • This allows for greater quality and quantity of practice
  • 11. Variety
    • Variety is the spice of life.
    • Advantages.
    • Improved motivation
    • Prevent boredom
    • Help overcome plateaus in training
    • How to add variety to training
    • Circuit training
    • Running in new locations or with people
    • Playing different games at training
  • 12. Group and Individual Training
    • Advantages of training in a group
    • Friendly competition within group,
    • Motivation of a group
    • Support with a group
    • Information goes out to the whole group
    • Team bonding
    • Advantages of training as individuals
    • You can receive specialised training depending on your skill/ fitness profile
    • You can train “where you are at”
    • You can work towards individual goals
  • 13. Methods of training
    • Continuous Training
    • Is designed to improve Cardio respiratory endurance and muscular endurance
    • Common continuous training activities include
    • Aerobics
    • Jogging/ Running
    • Cycling
    • Swimming
  • 14. Continuous Training
    • Application of Frequency
    • Health related fitness Training Frequency 3x per week
    • Sports related fitness 5-6 x per week
    • If training competitively in an aerobic activity the frequency of the training increases as the aerobic component increases.
  • 15. Continuous Training
    • Application of Duration
    • Minimum length of time required to gain an aerobic benefit is 20 minutes. Ideal starting point for beginners who want a basic health related fitness.
    • Sport related fitness sessions up to an hour may be required.
    • Beyond an hour benefits begin to decrease.
  • 16. Continuous training
    • Intensity
    • Aerobic capacity is developed by exercising with your heart rate at about 70% of maximum
    • An effective method for establishing your training threshold is to use the Karvonen Formula
    • Training Heart Rate [THR] = RHR + 0.6 [MHR – RHR]
    • Training Heart Rate [THR] = RHR + 0.85 [MHR – RHR]
  • 17. 0 +25 +5 +15 Upper Body -25 0 -20 -10 Running doing -5 +20 0 +10 Swimming Been -15 +10 -10 0 Cycling Have Upper Body Running Swimming Cycling Do To What
  • 18. Continuous training
    • Application of Overload
    • How can we overload the system in order to keep producing gains?
    • Increase intensity of training
    • Increase frequency of training
    • Increase duration of training
    • Resting Heart rate decreases with appropriate training.
    • Using the Karvonen Formula
    • RHR comes down also.
    • Get into THR zone quicker which means can train for longer time in this zone
  • 19. Continuous Training Summary Up to an hour Duration of session THR = 142 - 154 Intensity Karvonen Formula THR = 133 – 182 bpm Intensity Age THR Zone 3-5 x per week Frequency Application Principle of training
  • 20. Continuous Training
    • How you will apply overload to his training
    • Increase intensity, frequency, duration of training.
    • Consequently, adaptations will be made.
    • They key is to regularly ensure overload is being applied. Eg measuring RHR and recalculating THR zone.
    • It is important to realise that this assumes that medically the person can cope with this training
  • 21. Weight Training
    • Weight Training develops the following components of fitness
    • Muscular strength
    • Muscular endurance
    • Muscular power
    • Terminology used in a weight training programme
    • Repetition Max : The max amount of weight that can be lifted x the number of times [ no more no less]
    • Repetitions [Reps] The number of times the exercise is done
    • Sets: The number of times each set of exercise is done
  • 22. Weight Training
    • Application of Frequency
    • 3 sessions per week with 24 hours between sessions
    • We need time to recover between sessions so the body can heal and overcome fatigue
    • Supercompensation in training
    • C
    • Onset of Ex. D
    • _____________________________________________Normal state
    • A B
  • 23. Weight Training
    • Following the onset of exercise, we go through four phases.
    • A: Fatigue - Decrease in performance as we fire
    • B: Recovery as we rest immediately following a session of training
    • Supercompensation as the body adapts to training
    • De training – reversibility if training does not occur
    • Best time to train is during C Supercompensation
    • Supercompensation phase lasts between 24-48hours depending on intensity of training
    • We are ready to train when we feel ready
    • PER Ratio can be of benefit
  • 24. Weight Training
    • Application of Intensity
    • Four Types Of Muscle contractions
    • A. Isotonic Tradition weight training
    • B. Isometric Contractions against immoveable force
    • C. Isokinetic Tends to use highly specialised machines
    • D. Eccentric Slowly lowering weights [ controlling]
  • 25. Weight Training
    • Basic weight Training Regimes
    Minimal Medium 2-3 15- 30 15+ RM Endurance 3-5mins Fast / explosive 3-6 4- 8 8-20 RM Power 2-3 mins Slow / Medium 2-3 8-12 8-12 RM Beginner Strength 3-5 mins Slow / Medium 3-6 2- 6 2-6 RM Advanced Strength Rest Speed Sets Reps Load COMPONENT
  • 26. Weight Training
    • Application of Overload
    • How do we apply over load to weight training?
    • A. Increase the repetition max
    • B. Increase the number of reps per set
    • C. Increase the number of sets
    • D. Decrease rest time between sets
    • E. Decrease time between training sessions
    • F The best method is to re-test the RM after a period of time and altering the load accordingly
  • 27. Weight Training
    • Application of specificity EG. Volleyball player
    • Use exercises that mimic the sporting actions of the sports we play. Eg. squat jumps in volleyball
    • How would you increase a vertical jump. Identify main muscle groups
    • Quadriceps, hamstrings, gluteals , gastrocnemius/ soleus
    • Exercises you would perform would be:
    • Squats, toe raises, leg extensions
    • The exercises would be performed fast/ explosive because you are training for power
    • Having selected the exercises there are two essential rules to follow before starting:
    • 1. Make sure you understand the correct technique
    • Never put two exercises together that stress the same muscle group
  • 28. Circuit Training
    • What health and skill components can circuit training develop?
    • A. Muscular strength B. Muscular power
    • C. Muscular Endurance D. Aerobic Endurance
    • E. Agility F. Skill / Technique
    • Basic circuits can be designed for general fitness, or sport specific fitness and skills.
    • There Are two general circuit types.
    • A . Fixed load. You do a set number of a set exercise before moving on. Eg. 10 chin ups
    • B. Individual load You do as many of a certain exercise as possible within a time period.
    • In both programmes. You need to consider :
    • 1. A separate flexibility programme
    • 2. Never exercise the same muscle group in succession
  • 29. Circuit Training
    • Application of Frequency
    • Designed to be primarily cardiorespiratory in nature 3-5 days/ week
    • Application of Intensity
    • What factors will determine how intense the training will be?
    • A, Purpose .. what you are training for
    • B. Individual fitness level
    • C. Exercises selected
    • Having determined these we can use duration and overload to set intensity.
    • We measure intensity in a circuit by using THR [ Target heart rate]
    • And PER [perceived exertion rate]
  • 30. Circuit Training
    • Application of Duration
    • A. Set Duration. This depends on the individual and the training
    • objectives but 20-60 seconds is usual.
    • . B . Rest Duration This can be increased or decreased to meet
    • intensity required.
    • General fitness 0-10 seconds
    • Strength/ power 30-60 seconds
    • Elderly/ Unfit 20-60 seconds
    • We can manipulate these factors to provide overload
  • 31. Circuit training
    • Application of Overload
    • Factors that can be manipulated in order to apply overload
    • 1. Rest duration
    • 2. Exercise duration
    • 3. Intensity of session
    • It is time to overload an athlete when;
    • A They feel ready to move on
    • B When testing shows they have improved
  • 32. Circuit Training
    • Application of Specificity
    • Train energy systems
    • Muscle groups specific to a sport
  • 33. Interval Training
    • ATP-CP Energy System
    • Supplies energy for 0-10 seconds
    • It takes up to 2 minutes to replace CP stores
    • Interval training guidelines for ATP-CP System
    • Between reps the rest is passive to allow CP stores to be replaced
    5-10 minutes Rest between sets 2-4 Sets 4:6 Reps 1:10 Work: Rest ratio 10-100 seconds Rest duration between reps 1-10 seconds Work duration Application Training Component
  • 34. Interval training
    • Anaerobic energy system
    • Lasts 30 to 120 seconds
    • Lactic acid is produced
    • We should perform light exercises between reps in rest phase to help remove lactic acid
    • Interval training guidelines for anaerobic system
    5-10 minutes Rest Between sets 1-4 Sets 4-6 Reps 1:3 Work : Rest Ratio 90-360 seconds Rest Duration Between reps 30-120 seconds Work Duration Application Training Component
  • 35. Interval Training
    • Aerobic System
    • Energy system supp
    • supplies energy for long distance
    • Interval training guidelines for aerobic training
    Minimal Rest between sets 1-3 Sets 5-20 Reps 1:1 TO 1:2 Work: Rest ratio 1- 5 minutes Rest Duration Between reps 15-seconds – 3minutes Work duration Application Training component
  • 36. Interval Training
    • Application of Overload
    • How can we overload these energy systems.
    • 1. Decrease the rest between reps
    • 2.Increase the number of reps
    • 3. Increase sets
    • 4. Increase work-time
    • We apply overload to the athlete
    • A. Athlete feels ready
    • B. We can use PER [perceived exertion rate]
    • C. We notice a decreased resting heart rate [RHR]