OSMOREGULATION AND EXCRETION
Key Concepts <ul><li>Osmoregulation balances the uptake and loss of water and solutes </li></ul><ul><li>An animal’s nitrog...
Key Words <ul><li>homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>excretion </li></ul><ul><li>uric acid </li></ul><ul><li>filtration </li></...
Types of metabolic waste produced by living systems <ul><li>Digestive waste </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory waste </li></ul>...
Osmoregulation <ul><li>Balance of uptake and loss of water and solutes </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled movement of solutes be...
Types of nitrogenous wastes <ul><li>Deamination  – protein and nucleic acid metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Three main types ...
Type of Organism Structure Product of excretion Other features Plants Stomata, lenticels Insoluble crystals Crystals are k...
Excretory Systems <ul><li>Dispose of metabolic wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate solute concentrations in the body </li></...
Flatworms Flame cells Unsegmented roundworms Protonephridia, closed network of dead-end tubes lacking openings Annelids Me...
Molluscs Nephridia or metaphridia Crustaceans Antennal/green gland Insects Malpighian tubules and digestive tract Uric aci...
Marine fishes  Gills Ammonia Elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, rays) Kidneys Urea Rectal glands – excrete excess NaCl Freshwa...
 
From Blood Filtrate to Urine: A Closer Look Proximal tubule – secretion and reabsorption Filtrate H 2 O Salts (NaCl and ot...
<ul><li>Two solutes: NaCl and urea, contribute to the osmolarity of the interstitial fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Cause the rea...
Nervous system and hormones regulate kidney functions <ul><li>Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulated ...
<ul><li>The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responds to a loss of salt and water in the ...
Some medical aspects concerning the excretory system <ul><li>Urinary tract infection (UTI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bacterial...
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Presentation 12 - Osmoregulation And Excretion

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Presentation 12 - Osmoregulation And Excretion

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Presentation 12 - Osmoregulation And Excretion

  1. 1. OSMOREGULATION AND EXCRETION
  2. 2. Key Concepts <ul><li>Osmoregulation balances the uptake and loss of water and solutes </li></ul><ul><li>An animal’s nitrogenous wastes reflect its phylogeny and habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse excretory systems are variations on a tubular theme </li></ul><ul><li>Nephrons and associated blood vessels are the functional units of the mammalian kidney </li></ul><ul><li>The mammalian kidney’s ability to conserve water is a key terrestrial adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse adaptations of the vertebrate kidney have evolved in different environments </li></ul>
  3. 3. Key Words <ul><li>homeostasis </li></ul><ul><li>excretion </li></ul><ul><li>uric acid </li></ul><ul><li>filtration </li></ul><ul><li>renal vein </li></ul><ul><li>urethra </li></ul><ul><li>nephron </li></ul><ul><li>proximal tubule </li></ul><ul><li>collecting duct </li></ul><ul><li>efferent arteriole </li></ul><ul><li>antidiuretic hormone (ADH) </li></ul><ul><li>secretion (selective reabsorption) </li></ul><ul><li>renal artery </li></ul><ul><li>urinary bladder </li></ul><ul><li>renal medulla </li></ul><ul><li>Bowman's capsule </li></ul><ul><li>distal tubule </li></ul><ul><li>afferent arteriole </li></ul><ul><li>vasa recta </li></ul><ul><li>ammonia </li></ul><ul><li>filtrate </li></ul><ul><li>ureter </li></ul><ul><li>renal cortex </li></ul><ul><li>glomerulus </li></ul><ul><li>loop of Henle </li></ul><ul><li>cortical nephrons </li></ul><ul><li>peritubular capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>aldosterone </li></ul><ul><li>osmoregulation </li></ul><ul><li>urea </li></ul>
  4. 4. Types of metabolic waste produced by living systems <ul><li>Digestive waste </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory waste </li></ul><ul><li>Excess water and salts (through osmoregulation) </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogenous waste (through excretion) </li></ul>
  5. 5. Osmoregulation <ul><li>Balance of uptake and loss of water and solutes </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled movement of solutes between internal fluids and environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Osmoconformer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(marine animals isoosmotic with environment) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Osmoregulator (freshwater, marine, and terrestrial animals that adjust internal osmolarity) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Types of nitrogenous wastes <ul><li>Deamination – protein and nucleic acid metabolism </li></ul><ul><li>Three main types differing in terms of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amount of water needed for excretion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Energy needed for synthesis </li></ul></ul>300 – 500 mL/gN 1 step rxn 50 mL/gN 4 step rxn 10 mL/gN 15 step rxn
  7. 7. Type of Organism Structure Product of excretion Other features Plants Stomata, lenticels Insoluble crystals Crystals are kept inside plant cells Cnidarians and echinoderms No excretory organ - Osmoconformers, isoosmotic with environment Freshwater protists and sponges Contractile vacuole
  8. 8. Excretory Systems <ul><li>Dispose of metabolic wastes </li></ul><ul><li>Regulate solute concentrations in the body </li></ul><ul><li>Transport epithelia arranged in tubes </li></ul><ul><li>4 major processes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtration , pressure-filtering of body fluids producing a filtrate (water, salts, sugars, amino acids, N-wastes) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reabsorption , reclaiming valuable solutes (glucose, salts, amino acids) from the filtrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretion , addition of larger molecules like toxins and other excess solutes from the body fluids to the filtrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Excretion , the filtrate leaves the system </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Flatworms Flame cells Unsegmented roundworms Protonephridia, closed network of dead-end tubes lacking openings Annelids Metanephridia, open-ended network of tubes with internal openings that collect body fluids Type of Organism Structure Product of excretion Other features
  10. 10. Molluscs Nephridia or metaphridia Crustaceans Antennal/green gland Insects Malpighian tubules and digestive tract Uric acid Type of Organism Structure Product of excretion Other features
  11. 11. Marine fishes Gills Ammonia Elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, rays) Kidneys Urea Rectal glands – excrete excess NaCl Freshwater fishes Gills Ammonia or urea Amphibians and mammals Kidneys Urea Liver converts ammonia to urea Reptiles and birds Kidneys Uric acid Salt glands Type of Organism Structure Product of excretion Other features
  12. 13. From Blood Filtrate to Urine: A Closer Look Proximal tubule – secretion and reabsorption Filtrate H 2 O Salts (NaCl and others) HCO 3 – H + Urea Glucose; amino acids Some drugs >> Same concentration of substances in blood plasma Key Active transport Passive transport CORTEX OUTER MEDULLA INNER MEDULLA <ul><li>Descending limb </li></ul><ul><li>of loop of </li></ul><ul><li>Henle – reabsorption </li></ul><ul><li>Permeable to water but not to salt </li></ul>Thick segment of ascending limb – reabsorption - Impermeable to water but permeable to salt Thin segment of ascending limb Collecting Duct – permeable to water but not to salt, bottom portion is permeable to urea NaCl NaCl NaCl Distal tubule – secretion and reabsorption NaCl Nutrients Urea H 2 O NaCl H 2 O H 2 O HCO 3  K + H + NH 3 HCO 3  K + H + H 2 O 1 4 3 2 3 5
  13. 14. <ul><li>Two solutes: NaCl and urea, contribute to the osmolarity of the interstitial fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Cause the reabsorption of water in the kidney and concentrates the urine </li></ul>H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O NaCl NaCl NaCl NaCl NaCl NaCl NaCl 300 300 100 400 600 900 1200 700 400 200 100 Active transport Passive transport OUTER MEDULLA INNER MEDULLA CORTEX H 2 O Urea H 2 O Urea H 2 O Urea H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O H 2 O 1200 1200 900 600 400 300 600 400 300 Osmolarity of interstitial fluid (mosm/L) 300
  14. 15. Nervous system and hormones regulate kidney functions <ul><li>Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulated by a rise in the blood’s osmolarity (>300 mosm/L) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhances fluid retention by making the kidneys reclaim more water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases water reabsorption in the distal tubules and collecting ducts of the kidney </li></ul></ul>Osmoreceptors in hypothalamus Drinking reduces blood osmolarity to set point H 2 O reab- sorption helps prevent further osmolarity increase STIMULUS: The release of ADH is triggered when osmo- receptor cells in the hypothalamus detect an increase in the osmolarity of the blood Homeostasis: Blood osmolarity Hypothalamus ADH Pituitary gland Increased permeability Thirst Collecting duct Distal tubule
  15. 16. <ul><li>The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responds to a loss of salt and water in the blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulated by low blood volume or pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases water and sodium ion reabsorption in the proximal and distal tubules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to an increase in blood volume and pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposed by the hormone atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Released by atria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibits release of renin </li></ul></ul></ul>Increased Na + and H 2 O reab- sorption in distal tubules Homeostasis: Blood pressure, volume STIMULUS: The juxtaglomerular apparatus (JGA) responds to low blood volume or blood pressure (such as due to dehydration or loss of blood) Aldosterone Adrenal gland Angiotensin II Angiotensinogen Renin production Renin Arteriole constriction Distal tubule JGA
  16. 17. Some medical aspects concerning the excretory system <ul><li>Urinary tract infection (UTI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bacterial infection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>cystitis/pyelonephritis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>treated by antibiotics and prevented through proper hygiene </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Kidney stones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>solidified crystals in kidneys or ureters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium oxalate </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Uric acid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nephrolithiasis/urolithiasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prevention: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Drinking adequate water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proper diet low in protein, N, and Na </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid excess Vitamin C intake </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Dialysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hemodialysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peritoneal dialysis </li></ul></ul>
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