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Urinary system


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Urinary system

  1. 1. urinary system Karla Mae J. Sagun, OTRP
  2. 2. OUTLINE <ul><li>Functions of the Urinary System </li></ul><ul><li>ANATOMY </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different Structures of the Urinary System </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The KIDNEY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blood Vessels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The NEPHRON </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PHYSIOLOGY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urine Formation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urine Movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation of Urine Concentration and Volume </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation of Extracellular Fluid Composition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regulation of Acid-Base Balance </li></ul></ul></ul>
  3. 3. FUNCTIONS <ul><li>Excretion </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of blood volume and pressure </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of the concentration of solutes in the blood </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of extracellular fluid pH </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation of red blood cell synthesis </li></ul><ul><li>Vitamin D synthesis </li></ul>
  4. 4. STRUCTURES OF THE URINARY SYSTEM <ul><li>Kidneys </li></ul><ul><li>Ureters </li></ul><ul><li>Urinary Bladder </li></ul><ul><li>Urethra </li></ul>
  5. 5. The KIDNEY <ul><li>bean-shaped organ </li></ul><ul><li>size of a tightly clenched fist </li></ul><ul><li>lie on the posterior abdominal wall ( RETROPERITONEAL ) </li></ul><ul><li>T12 – L3 </li></ul>
  6. 6. Structures of the Kidney <ul><li>Renal capsule: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>surrounds, encloses, and protects the kidney. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>helps to maintain the shape of the kidney as well as protecting it from damage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The renal capsule is itself surrounded by a mass of fatty tissue that also helps to protect the kidney by damage by cushioning it in cases of impact or sudden movement. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renal hilus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>indentation near to the centre of the concave area of the kidney. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the area of the kidney through which the ureter leaves the kidney and the other structures including blood vessels (illustrated), lymphatic vessels, and nerves enter/leave the kidney. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Renal cortex: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>outer part of the kidney and has a reddish colour (shown as very pale brown above). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is the location of the Bowman's Capsules and the glomeruli, in addition to the proximal and distal convoluted tubules and their associated blood supplies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renal medulla: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>inner part of the kidney. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Renal pyramids: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are approx. 5 - 18 striated triangular structures called &quot;Renal Pyramids&quot; within the renal medulla of each kidney. The appearance of striations is due to many straight tubules and blood vessels within the renal pyramids. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RENAL PAPILLA : point of a pyramid </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Renal columns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cortical tissue that dips into the medulla between the pyramids. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Calyx: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Considered the beginning of the plumbing system of the urinary system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Collects urine leaving from the papilla (throught the papillary duct) for transport out of the body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renal pelvis: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The renal pelvis is the funnel-shaped basin (cavity) that receives the urine drained from the kidney nephrons via the collecting ducts and then the (larger) papillary ducts. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Diagram showing the parts of the KIDNEY and the NEPHRON
  11. 11. Blood Vessels of the Kidney <ul><li>Abdominal aorta </li></ul><ul><li>Renal artery </li></ul><ul><li>Segmental arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Lobar arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Interlobar arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Arcuate arteries </li></ul><ul><li>Interlobular arteries </li></ul>Inferior vena cava Renal vein Segmental veins Lobar veins Interlobar veins Arcuate veins Interlobular veins Afferent arteriole Glomerulus (GLOMERULAR CAPILLARIES) Efferent arteriole Peritubular arteries – vasa recta
  12. 13. The NEPHRON <ul><li>Functional unit of the kidney </li></ul><ul><li>1.25 M per kidney </li></ul><ul><li>Make up the bulk of the kidney </li></ul><ul><li>CORTICAL NEPHRON </li></ul><ul><li>JUXTAMEDULLARY NEPHRON </li></ul>
  13. 15. MICROSCOPIC STRUCTURES OF THE NEPHRON <ul><li>Renal corpuscle* </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bowman’s capsule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Proximal convoluted tubule* </li></ul><ul><li>Loop of Henle </li></ul><ul><li>Distal convoluted tubule* </li></ul><ul><li>Collecting duct </li></ul>
  14. 16. NEPHRON
  15. 17. RENAL CORPUSCLE <ul><li>BOWMAN’S CAPSULE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cup-shaped mouth of the nephron </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of 2 layers of epithelial cells with Bowman’s space between them </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inner layer lined with podocytes + glomerular capillaries FILTRATION MEMBRANE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GLOMERULAR FILTRATE – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PEDICELS – FILTRATION SLITS – SLIT DIAPHRAGM </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GLOMERULUS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure fitted into Bowman’s capsule </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a network of fine capillaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Have thin, membranous walls that are composed of a single layer of endothelial cells </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. URETER <ul><li>Begins at L1 </li></ul><ul><li>28-34 cm long </li></ul><ul><li>Propels urine by peristalsis </li></ul><ul><li>3 layers of tissue: </li></ul><ul><li>Mucous lining </li></ul><ul><li>Muscular layer </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrous outer layer </li></ul>
  18. 20. URINARY BLADDER <ul><li>2 Major Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>Reservoir for urine </li></ul><ul><li>Expels urine through the urethra </li></ul><ul><li>muscular collapsible bag located behind the symphysis pubis and in front of the rectum </li></ul><ul><li>DETRUSOR MUSCLE – smooth muscle tissue which makes up the wall of the bladder </li></ul><ul><li>TRIGONE - </li></ul>
  19. 21. URETHRA <ul><li>Leads from the floor of the urethra to the exterior of the body </li></ul><ul><li>FEMALE </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 cm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Urinary </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>MALE </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20 cm </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Genito-urinary </li></ul></ul></ul>
  21. 23. MALE URETHRA
  22. 24. URINE PRODUCTION <ul><li>Filtration </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glomerular-capsular membrane </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Reabsorption </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Renal tubule </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Secretion </li></ul>
  23. 25. FILTRATION <ul><li>Physical process </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of water and protein-free solutes from the plasma in the glomerulus </li></ul><ul><li>180L of glomerular filtrate formed each day </li></ul><ul><li>FILTRATION PRESSURE – pressure gradient that forces fluid from the glomerular capillary  filtration membrane  Bowman’s capsule </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BP in the glomerular capillaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blood protein concentration </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure in the Bowman’s capsules </li></ul></ul></ul>
  24. 26. REABSORPTION <ul><li>Second step which takes place by means of passive and active transport mechanisms from all parts of the renal tubules </li></ul><ul><li>Movement of molecules out of the various segments of the tubule and into the peritubular blood </li></ul>
  25. 28. PROXIMAL TUBULE <ul><li>Cuboidal cells with numerous microvilli and mitochondria </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary site for the reabsorption of solutes and water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>65% of filtrate volume reabsorbed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Summary of Reabsorption: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium by active transport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucose and amino acids by cotransport </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chloride by passive transport ( due to electrical imbalance) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water by osmosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>About half of urea by passive transport </li></ul></ul></ul>
  26. 29. LOOP OF HENLE <ul><li>Functions to further concentrate the filtrate </li></ul><ul><li>DESCENDING LIMB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water moves out of the nephron by osmosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some solutes move into the nephron by diffusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>15% of filtrate reabsorbed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ASCENDING LIMB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functions to dilute the filtrate by removing solutes (sodium, potassium, chloride by active transport) </li></ul></ul>
  27. 30. DISTAL TUBULE and COLLECTING DUCTS <ul><li>Functions to remove water and additional solutes </li></ul><ul><li>Reabsorption of water in these segments are controlled by hormones </li></ul><ul><li>ANTIDIURETIC (ADH) HORMONE </li></ul><ul><li>DISTAL TUBULE </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reabsorb sodium by active transport </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reabsorb water by osmosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>COLLECTING DUCTS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reabsorption of water by osmosis </li></ul></ul>
  28. 31. TUBULAR SECRETION <ul><li>Movement of molecules out of the peritubular blood and into the tubule for excretion </li></ul>
  29. 32. URINE MOVEMENT <ul><li>MICTURITION REFLEX </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanism for voiding urine </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Voluntary relaxation of external sphincter muscle of the bladder </li></ul>
  30. 33. CHARACTERISTICS OF URINE NORMAL ABNORMAL Color Transparent yellow, amber or straw color Cloudiness Compounds Mineral ions Nitrogenous waste Suspended solids Urine pigments Acetone Albumin Bile Glucose Odor Slight odor Acetone odor pH 4.6 – 8.0 Specific Gravity 1.001 – 1.035 High specific gravity: high precipitation of solutes
  31. 34. URINE COMPOSITION <ul><li>95% water </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolved substances: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogenous wastes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electrolytes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxins </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pigments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other abnormal constituents </li></ul></ul>
  33. 36. REGULATION OF URINE CONCENTRATION AND VOLUME <ul><li>Hormonal Mechanisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Antidiuretic Hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secreted by posterior pituitary gland </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regulates amount of H2O reabsorbed by the distal tubules and collecting ducts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> ADH :  H2O reabsorbed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renin – Angiotensin – (  ) Aldosterone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Conserve water to help prevent further decline in BP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> ALDOSTERONE :  reabsorption of Na + and Cl – </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atrial natriuretic hormone </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Secreted from cardiac muscle cells in the RA when there is a  in BP </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li> ANH :  reabsorption :  urine output :  blood volume and BP </li></ul></ul></ul>
  34. 37. <ul><li>Sympathetic vs. Parasympathetic Innervation </li></ul><ul><ul><li> sympathetic activity:  blood flow :  filtrate formation :  urine formation </li></ul></ul>
  35. 38. REGULATION OF EXTRACELLULAR FLUID COMPOSITION <ul><li>HOMEOSTASIS </li></ul><ul><li>Body Fluids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ECF ( 40% ) vs. ICF ( 60% ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thirst </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sensation of thirst increases if ECF becomes more concentrated or if BP decreases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sodium ions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium ions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Calcium </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphate and Sulphate ions </li></ul></ul></ul>
  36. 39. REGULATION OF ACID-BASE BALANCE <ul><li>Concentration of H + : pH of body fluids </li></ul><ul><li>Normal pH: 7.35 – 7.45 </li></ul><ul><li>Acidosis : below normal pH </li></ul><ul><li>Alkalosis : above normal pH </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Buffers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals that resist change in pH of a solution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Respiratory system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased RR raises pH  rate of CO2 elimination is increased </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kidneys </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Excrete H + in response to decreased blood pH </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  37. 40. ACIDOSIS and ALKALOSIS <ul><li>RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When respiratory system is unable to eliminate adequate amounts of CO2 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>METABOLIC ACIDOSIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Excess production of acidic substances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>RESPIRATORY ALKALOSIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>hyperventilation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>METABOLIC ALKALOSIS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid elimination of hydrogen ions such as in vomiting or when excess aldosterone is excreted </li></ul></ul>
  38. 42. kms, otrp