Biology introduction


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  • Movement in animals is possible because of muscular and skeletal systems.
  • Growth, with increases in size and number of cells, is part of development. Development involves many stages from conception until death.
  • Adaptations are modifications that enable an organism to be suited to its way of life.
  • Genus and species are the two names used to identify specific organisms in the binomial system of classification. Division is used for plants.
  • Cell Theory: All organisms are composed of cells. Biogenesis Theory: Life comes only from life. Theory of Evolution: All living things have a common ancestor, but each is adapted to a particular was of life. Gene Theory: Organisms contain coded information that dictates their form, function, and behavior.
  • Biology introduction

    1. 1. Inquiry into Life , 10 th edition by Sylvia Mader
    2. 2. Chapter 1: The Study of Life
    3. 3. The Characteristics of Life <ul><li>Life is diverse yet all living things share common characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Living things are organized. </li></ul>
    4. 5. <ul><li>Living things acquire materials and energy. </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthetic organisms use carbon dioxide, water, and solar energy to make food. </li></ul><ul><li>Animals obtain nutrients and energy from food eaten. </li></ul><ul><li>Energy is the capacity to do work. </li></ul><ul><li>Many living things can convert energy to motion. </li></ul>
    5. 6. <ul><li>Living things reproduce. </li></ul><ul><li>Genes (DNA) contain information needed for heredity and metabolism . </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolism is all the chemical reactions in the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction may be asexual or sexual. </li></ul>
    6. 7. <ul><li>Living things respond to stimuli. </li></ul><ul><li>Living things may respond to external stimuli by movement toward or away from a stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>Movement constitutes part of the behavior of an organism. </li></ul>
    7. 8. <ul><li>Living things are homeostatic . </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis is the ability of an organism to maintain relatively constant internal conditions. </li></ul><ul><li>An example is temperature regulation in the human body. </li></ul><ul><li>All organ systems contribute to homeostasis. </li></ul>
    8. 9. <ul><li>Living things grow and develop. </li></ul><ul><li>All organisms undergo development. </li></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>Living things are adapted. </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptations come about through evolution . </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution is the process by which a species changes through time. </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution explains both the unity and diversity of life. </li></ul>
    10. 11. The Classification of Living Things <ul><li>Taxomony is the science of identifying and classifying organisms according to specific criteria using these categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Kingdom </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum (Division) </li></ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul><ul><li>Order </li></ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Genus </li></ul><ul><li>Species </li></ul>
    11. 12. There are three domains : <ul><li>Archaea and Bacteria – unicellular prokaryotes that lack a membrane-bound nucleus. </li></ul><ul><li>Eukarya – showing cellular complexity and having a nucleus and other organelles. </li></ul>
    12. 13. <ul><li>Archaea live in harsh environments and may represent the first cells to have evolved. </li></ul><ul><li>Bacteria, some of which cause human diseases, are present in almost all habitats on earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Many bacteria are important environmentally and commercially. </li></ul>
    13. 14. <ul><li>The Domain Eukarya is divided into 4 kingdoms: </li></ul><ul><li>Protists (kingdom Protista) </li></ul><ul><li>Fungi (kingdom Fungi) </li></ul><ul><li>Plants (kingdom Plantae) </li></ul><ul><li>Animals (kingdom Animalia) </li></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>Most genera contain a number of similar species, with the exception of Homo that only contains modern humans. </li></ul><ul><li>Classification is based on evolutionary relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Each successive classification category contains more different types of organisms than the preceding category. </li></ul>
    15. 16. <ul><li>Scientific names are binomial names, using genus and species. </li></ul><ul><li>Modern humans are Homo sapiens . </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
    16. 17. The Organization of the Biosphere <ul><li>The biosphere is the zone of life in the air, water, and land that surrounds the planet. </li></ul><ul><li>Groups of individuals of a species are called populations . </li></ul><ul><li>Populations of different species that interact make up communities . </li></ul><ul><li>Communities plus the physical habitat form ecosystems . </li></ul>
    17. 18. <ul><li>Ecosystems are characterized by chemical cycling and energy flow . </li></ul>
    18. 19. <ul><li>Climate determines what ecosystem can exist in an area. </li></ul><ul><li>Human populations tend to modify ecosystems for their uses. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of ecosystems results in loss of biodiversity , the total number of species. </li></ul>
    19. 20. <ul><li>Preservation of ecosystems is important to ensure our continued existence. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of species threatens ecosystems. </li></ul>
    20. 21. The Process of Science <ul><li>Biology, the study of life, uses the scientific method . </li></ul><ul><li>The scientific method has these steps: </li></ul><ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments/Further Observations </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>Theory </li></ul>
    21. 23. <ul><li>An experimental design contains a control group that goes through all the steps of the experiment but is not exposed to the factor being tested. </li></ul><ul><li>Results of an experiment are called data . </li></ul><ul><li>Data undergo statistical evaluation. </li></ul>
    22. 24. <ul><li>Several theories in biology include: </li></ul><ul><li>Cell </li></ul><ul><li>Biogenesis </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Gene </li></ul>
    23. 25. <ul><li>Scientific studies may be carried out in the field or in the lab. </li></ul><ul><li>In either type of study, scientists formulate testable hypotheses, make observations or perform experiments, and come to objective conclusions. </li></ul>
    24. 26. Field Study Example
    25. 27. Controlled Laboratory Experiment Example
    26. 28. Science and Social Responsibility <ul><li>Technology is the application of knowledge for a practical purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Technology has both benefits and drawbacks. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethical and moral issues surrounding the use of technology must be decided by everyone. </li></ul>