Teeth, tags, and a TSE<br />SUSAN SCHOENIANSheep & Goat SpecialistWestern Maryland Research &  Education CenterUniversity ...
Today’s topics<br /><ul><li>Teeth
Mouthing sheep and goats to estimate age
Mouthing sheep and goats to determine soundness
Tags
Methods of identifying sheep and goats
Ear tagging basics
TSE
Scrapie in sheep and goats
Tagging requirements</li></li></ul><li>Mature sheep and goats have 32 teethLambs and kids have 20 temporary teeth<br />Den...
Mouthing sheep and goats to estimate age<br /><ul><li>You can estimate the approximate age of sheep and goats by determini...
Age varies by individual animal, breed, environment, and nutrition.</li></ul>&lt; 1<br />1-2<br />2-3<br />3-4<br />&gt; 4...
Lamb – less than 1 year of age<br />Baby teeth<br />Milk teeth<br />All temporary<br />
Yearling (1-2 years)<br />1 pair <br />
2 to 3 year old<br />2 pairs <br />
3 to 4 year old<br />3 pairs <br />
4-5 years old – solid mouth<br />4 pairs <br />
7-8 year old – Solid mouth<br />&lt; 4 pairs <br />
10-11 year old broken mouth<br />
11+ years old“Gummer”<br />
Jawabnormalities<br />
Another way to tell how old a sheep is<br />Lamb, &gt; 12 months<br />2 break joints<br />Yearling, 13-24 monthsspool and/...
Identifying sheep and goats<br /><ul><li>Permanent
Ear tags
Tattoos
Ear notches
Electronic ID
Temporary
Neck chains or collars
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Teeth, tags, and a TSE

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This presentation by University of Maryland Extension Sheep & Goat Specialist Susan Schoenian covers three topics: teeth (including how to age sheep and goats), tags, and scrapie (including tagging requirements).

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Teeth, tags, and a TSE

  1. 1. Teeth, tags, and a TSE<br />SUSAN SCHOENIANSheep & Goat SpecialistWestern Maryland Research & Education CenterUniversity of Maryland Extensionwww.sheepandgoat.comsschoen@umd.edu(301) 432-2767 x343<br />
  2. 2. Today’s topics<br /><ul><li>Teeth
  3. 3. Mouthing sheep and goats to estimate age
  4. 4. Mouthing sheep and goats to determine soundness
  5. 5. Tags
  6. 6. Methods of identifying sheep and goats
  7. 7. Ear tagging basics
  8. 8. TSE
  9. 9. Scrapie in sheep and goats
  10. 10. Tagging requirements</li></li></ul><li>Mature sheep and goats have 32 teethLambs and kids have 20 temporary teeth<br />Dental padno teeth<br />MolarsBack teeth<br />Incisors(front teeth)<br />Picture source: Merck Veterinary Manual, 8th edition<br />
  11. 11. Mouthing sheep and goats to estimate age<br /><ul><li>You can estimate the approximate age of sheep and goats by determining the age at which the milk teeth are replaced by permanent incisors.
  12. 12. Age varies by individual animal, breed, environment, and nutrition.</li></ul>&lt; 1<br />1-2<br />2-3<br />3-4<br />&gt; 4<br />Old<br />Source for illustrations: Adapted from Vatta et al. (2005) Goatkeepers&apos; Veterinary Manual. <br />
  13. 13. Lamb – less than 1 year of age<br />Baby teeth<br />Milk teeth<br />All temporary<br />
  14. 14. Yearling (1-2 years)<br />1 pair <br />
  15. 15. 2 to 3 year old<br />2 pairs <br />
  16. 16. 3 to 4 year old<br />3 pairs <br />
  17. 17. 4-5 years old – solid mouth<br />4 pairs <br />
  18. 18. 7-8 year old – Solid mouth<br />&lt; 4 pairs <br />
  19. 19. 10-11 year old broken mouth<br />
  20. 20. 11+ years old“Gummer”<br />
  21. 21. Jawabnormalities<br />
  22. 22. Another way to tell how old a sheep is<br />Lamb, &gt; 12 months<br />2 break joints<br />Yearling, 13-24 monthsspool and/or break joints<br />Mature sheep, &gt; 2 years<br />2 spool joints<br />
  23. 23. Identifying sheep and goats<br /><ul><li>Permanent
  24. 24. Ear tags
  25. 25. Tattoos
  26. 26. Ear notches
  27. 27. Electronic ID
  28. 28. Temporary
  29. 29. Neck chains or collars
  30. 30. Paint brands
  31. 31. Paint sprays
  32. 32. Markers or paint sticks</li></li></ul><li>Ear tagging basics<br />Proper tags<br />Proper tool<br />
  33. 33. Ear tagging basics<br />Proper restraint<br />Proper placement<br />
  34. 34. How to reduce ear tag infections<br /><ul><li>Tag young animals
  35. 35. Tag clean, dry ears
  36. 36. Tag when humidity is low.
  37. 37. Use smaller tag
  38. 38. Avoid metal tags
  39. 39. Punch a hole in the ear before inserting tag</li></li></ul><li>How to reduce ear tag infections<br /><ul><li>Apply lubricating antiseptic to male and female parts of tag
  40. 40. Dip in iodine
  41. 41. Soak ear tags in alcohol or another disinfectant before inserting.
  42. 42. Cut out infected tags</li></li></ul><li>How to reduce tag losses<br />Insert tag 1 to 2 inches from skull<br />Thicker part of ear<br />Less snagging<br />Put female part of tag on inside of ear<br />Less snagging<br />Avoid large veins<br />
  43. 43. What to do if animal loses a tag<br /><ul><li>4-H tag
  44. 44. Contact 4-H office
  45. 45. Scrapie ID
  46. 46. Put in a new scrapie tag</li></ul>Own flock/herd<br />Flock/herd of origin<br /><ul><li>Write down old number and new number
  47. 47. Registration tag
  48. 48. Replace with a tag with the same number</li></li></ul><li>[TSE] Scrapie<br /><ul><li>Disease of sheep and goats.
  49. 49. Affects central nervous system.
  50. 50. Animals over 18 months of age
  51. 51. Always fatal.
  52. 52. Member of a family of diseases called transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSEs).
  53. 53. Other TSEs
  54. 54. Mad cow disease
  55. 55. Chronic wasting disease
  56. 56. Creutzfeldt-Jakob’s disease</li></li></ul><li>How does a sheep or goat get scrapie?<br />Direct contact with an infected sheep or goat.<br /><ul><li>Direct contact with infected placenta.</li></ul>Environmental contamination (?)<br />
  57. 57. Can all sheep and goats get scrapie?<br /><ul><li>Affects mostly blackface and speckled-faced sheep.
  58. 58. Few cases in goats in U.S.
  59. 59. A sheep’s genetics determines if it will get scrapie if it is exposed.
  60. 60. R gene - resistance
  61. 61. Q gene - susceptibility
  62. 62. They are still looking for resistant genotypes in goats.</li></li></ul><li>-- MANDATORY --Tagging requirement for scrapie program<br />Tag all sheep and goats when they leave your property.<br />Sell to neighbor<br />Go to weigh-in and tagging<br />Go to fair<br />Go to sale barn<br />Tag should be applied at the farm where the goat or sheep was born.<br />Premise ID<br />Individual animal ID<br />Why? To trace back infected animals to their farm of origin and find other animals that might have been exposed.<br />
  63. 63. Tattoo instead of ear tag<br />A flock ID and individual animal number can take the place of an ear tag.<br />A registration tattoo may also take the place of a tattoo if the animal accompanied by its registration paper.<br />
  64. 64. What if . . . ?<br /><ul><li>The sheep or goat you buy doesn’t have a scrapie tag?
  65. 65. The seller is required to tag the animal.
  66. 66. If the seller doesn’t provide a tag, tag the animal with another scrapie tag and record the seller’s name and address so you can prove the animal wasn’t born on your farm.
  67. 67. The sheep or goat loses its scrapie tag?
  68. 68. Put in another tag and record both tag numbers (lost and new).</li></li></ul><li>How to get FREE scrapie tags<br /><ul><li>Contact John T. Swann at (410) 349-9708 or John.C.Swann@aphis.usda.gov.
  69. 69. He will assign a Flock ID and order your free ear tags and pliers to apply them.</li></li></ul><li>Thank you for your attention. <br />Questions?<br />
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