Biosecurity

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This is the first presentation in a 5-part webinar series on sheep and goat health.

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Biosecurity

  1. 1. 2014 WINTER WEBINAR SERIES SHEEP & GOAT HEALTH PART I: BIOSECURITY SUSAN SCHOENIAN & JEFF SEMLER – UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND EXTENSION
  2. 2. WHAT IS BIOSECURITY? • What you do to prevent the introduction and spread of diseases on your farm. 1. 2. 3. 4. Flock/herd Farm State Country
  3. 3. WHAT IS A BIOSECURITY PLAN? • A written plan that indicates what you do to prevent the introduction and spread of diseases to your farm (self-assessment). • University of Maine and University of Maryland Extension have collaborated to create an online template for creating biosecurity plans. • This is your homework assignment: create a biosecurity plan for your farm (or update one that you already have). http://www.sheepandgoat.com/biosecurity2/
  4. 4. NEW ANIMALS POSE THE SINGLE GREATEST RISK TO BIOSECURITY. MOST DISEASES WALK THRU THE GATE!
  5. 5. WHAT DISEASES DO YOU ALREADY HAVE ON YOUR FARM? • Roundworms • Tapeworms (Moniezia expansa) • Liver flukes • Protozoan parasites coccidia (Eimeria spp.), toxoplasma gondii • Some external parasites • Foot scald (Fusobacterium necrophorum) • Clostridial bacteria (overeating, tetanus) • Lots of other disease-causing bacteria: Actinomyces, Listeria, Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Pasteurella, mycoplasma, e. coli, etc.
  6. 6. WHAT DISEASES SHOULD YOU BE CONCERNED ABOUT INTRODUCING TO YOUR FARM? • • • • • • • • • • • • • Resistant worms Some external parasites Soremouth Club lamb fungus Pink eye (infectious) Footrot (Dichelobacter nodosus) Infectious causes of abortion (Campylobacter, Chlamydia) Epididymitis (Brucella ovis) Caseous lymphadenitis (CL) Ovine progressive pneumonia (OPP) Caprine arthritic encephalitis (CAE) Johne’s disease (MAP) Scrapie
  7. 7. MAINTAIN A CLOSED FLOCK OR HERD • The best protection is to maintain a closed flock or herd. • A closed flock/herd is one in which no new animals are introduced. • There are very few truly closed herds and flocks, due to the need for outside genetics and limitations of artificial insemination (AI). Far fewer diseases are spread by AI..
  8. 8. MAINTAIN A MOSTLY CLOSED FLOCK OR HERD • Limit new acquisitions to males for breeding. • Minimize inbreeding and use AI to reduce the need for new males. • Raise your own replacements. • Do not show or exhibit. • Do not loan or lease animals to other farms. • Do not breed or board animals from other farms. Recommendation: if an animal leaves your farm, it should not come back!
  9. 9. ACQUIRING NEW STOCK • The best place to buy sheep and goats is from reputable breeders, who maintain closed or mostly closed flocks or herds. • [Though the biosecurity risk is greater] consignment sales and central performance tests can be good sources of breeding stock, since the animals are required to have certificates of veterinary inspection (CVIs). • It is not recommended that breeding stock be purchased at public livestock auctions or from livestock dealers – because there are usually no health requirements or inspections nor any incentives to keep diseased animals out of the market place. • Feeder lambs and goats that are purchased from livestock auctions (for resale) should be kept separate from the breeding flock/herd. BUYER BEWARE!
  10. 10. TIPS FOR ACQUIRING NEW STOCK • Young animals make safer purchases than mature animals, as they are less likely to be disease-carriers. • Don’t buy an animal right before you need it. • It is better to buy multiple animals from a single source than single animals from multiple sources. • Avoid bringing in new animals when your flock or herd is the most susceptible to new diseases, e.g. pregnancy, lambing and kidding.
  11. 11. WHAT SHOULD BE THE HEALTH STATUS OF THE ANIMALS YOU ACQUIRE? INDIVIDUAL ANIMAL FARM OF ORIGIN • Health record • Free from footrot, pinkeye, soremouth and club lamb fungus. • Health paper (CVI) • Free from infectious causes of abortion (Campylobacter, Chlamydia) e.g. vaccination and deworming history • In-state purchase - not required • Out-of-state purchase - required (buyer must request, unless the animal is purchased at an organized sale) • Certified scrapie-free • TB/Brucellosis free (state or herd) • Visibly free from diseases • CL-free • Tests negative for diseases • OPP-free • Scrapie-identified • CAE-free • Johne’s-free
  12. 12. QUARANTINING NEW ANIMALS • Newly-acquired animals should be quarantined (for at least 3 weeks) to prevent the introduction of new diseases or more resistant or virulent strains of a disease. • Newly-acquired animals includes animals that have returned from shows, fairs, festivals, or exhibitions.
  13. 13. QUARANTINE AREA • A pen away from the main flock or herd. • Not the same place that you house sick animals. • No contact between quarantined animals and the main flock or herd. • Observe quarantined animals daily for signs of sickness. • Milk, feed, and water animals in quarantine area LAST. • Disinfect after leaving quarantine area.
  14. 14. QUARANTINE DRENCHING • Anthelmintic (dewormer) resistance is a major problem in the small ruminant industry. • Worms have developed varying degrees of resistance to all dewormers and classes of dewormers. • One way to slow resistance is to prevent the introduction of resistant worms to your farm. • All newly acquired animals should be dewormed with anthelmintics from two (moxidectin + levamisole) or three anthelmintic classes. + Albendazole + Moxidectin Levamisole
  15. 15. SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS: SHOWING LIVESTOCK • Make sure your animals are hauled in clean trucks or trailers. • Ensure pens/housing area is clean. • Minimize nose-to-nose contact with other animals. • Feed and water your livestock separately. • Have you own equipment. Don’t share or borrow equipment. • Discourage fair visitors from touching or feeding your animals. • When you return from a show, isolate your animals.
  16. 16. DEAD ANIMAL DISPOSAL • Dispose of dead animals and other wastes in a safe, timely, and legal manner. • • • • • Compost *** Rendering Burial Incinerate Cremation Carrion, afterbirth, and other wastes spread diseases and attract wildlife, including predators.
  17. 17. FARM VISITATION • Do not allow unauthorized visitors. • Restrict visitors during critical periods. • Require or provide protective footwear for visitors, especially high-risk visitors. • Provide a dip for visitors to disinfect their footwear. • Display signage regarding biosecurity measures. • When you return to your farm, do not wear the same clothes and footwear that you wore to another farm, a fair, or the local auction barn.
  18. 18. SANITATION • Clean and disinfect: waterers, feeders, lambing/kidding areas, quarantine areas, sheds, barns, and equipment. • Always provide clean, fresh water. • Put feed in feeders (well-designed feeders) • Do not feed on ground • Avoid overstocking and overgrazing • Sunlight • Bedding
  19. 19. SHEARING • Do not let shearer introduce and/or spread diseases. • Caseous lymphadenitis • Club lamb fungus • Soremouth • Make sure shearer has disinfected his/her equipment since last job. • Disinfect equipment between animals. • Make sure youngest, healthiest animals are sheared first. • Do not share equipment.
  20. 20. OTHER ANIMALS • Prevent cats from contaminating feed and bedding. [Why? Toxoplasmosis] • Neuter and vaccinate barn cats. • Keep your dogs and cats from leaving farm. • Vaccinate dogs and cats for rabies. • Deworm dogs to prevent sheep measles. • Do not allow other dogs to visit farm. • Control rodent, bird, and insect populations
  21. 21. ZOONOSES DISEASES WHICH TRANSMIT FROM ANIMALS TO PEOPLE • Abortion • • • • Campylobacter (vibrio) Chlamydia (enzootic) Toxoplasmosis Q fever • Salmonella • Soremouth (orf) • Club lamb fungus (ringworm) • Rabies
  22. 22. ZOONOSES BEST MANAGEMENT PRACTICES • Pregnant women should avoid contact with animals during birthing process. • Wear gloves or OB sleeves when assisting with births and handling birthing fluids. • Wear gloves when handling sick or diseased animals. • Wear gloves when administering (live) soremouth vaccine. • Wash hands in warm, soapy water after handling livestock. • Make sure your tetanus inoculation is up-to-date. • Consider getting vaccinated for rabies.
  23. 23. NEXT WEBINAR TUESDAY, FEB. 6 7 PM EST TOPIC PREVENTATIVE HEALTH MANAGEMENT

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