DEPARTMENT OF LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION AND MANAGEMENT<br />LPM 312<br />Feed and feeding management of goats<br />IRSHAD 2K6,<br />COLLEGE OF VETERINARY AND ANIMAL SCIENCES,MANNUTHY<br />KERALA, INDIA<br />
Feeding habits of goats<br /><ul><li>Selective feeding
Browsing-mobile lips & very prehensile tongue. They can graze on very short grass and browse on foliage
Fastidious eating habits – consume wide varieties of feeds & vegetation than sheep or cattle.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Ability & distinguish between various tastes
Consume certain species at definite stage & reject them at other stage
Rumen is not developed at birth but young kids start picking at hay or grass at 2-3 weeks of age and by 3-4 months the rumen fully functional.</li></li></ul><li>Roughages<br /><ul><li>Green chop
Hays and other roughages-most economical, good quality legume hay/mixed legume grass- excellent source of nutrients
Mixed hay should contain at least 50% legume hay
5-7 % in meat type goats. </li></li></ul><li>Energy<br />Energy is the vital component of goat diet affecting utilization of other nutrients and overall productivity. <br />If more energy provided, the goat will gain weight faster. <br />1g live wt gain/3g starch equivalent<br />1kg milk/ 300 g SE. <br />
Protein<br />A minimum of 6 % total protein requirement in diet. <br />additional protein requirement for growth pregnancy, lactation and mohair production<br /> This can be achieved by adding concentrates in the ration. <br />
Minerals<br /><ul><li>Goat milk is rich in minerals
Na, Cl, Ca, P, S are the main minerals to be supplemented.
It is recommended to feed a mix made of equal parts of iodised salt and dicalcium phosphate at free choice.
Formulate mineral mix using sterilized bone meal, lime stone, iodised salt, copper sulphate, zinc oxide and ferrous carbonate. </li></li></ul><li>DM<br /> Vitamins and antibiotics<br /> Vitamins A, D & E are to be supplemented<br />Green forages and yellow maize are rich in Vitamin A. <br />Vitamin D can be obtained from sunlight<br />Vitamin E present in almost all rations. <br />
Antibiotics<br />Aureomycin and terramycin are included<br /> It will:<br /><ul><li>increase growth rate of young kids
DM<br />Feeding of kids and finisher<br />Fed with colostrum within 30 mins after birth and continue for 3 days.<br />Colostrum feeding is very important as<br /><ul><li>it is rich source of all essential nutrients
450ml up to 8 weeks and thereafter minimizing the quantity and completely stopped when kids attain 4 months of age.</li></ul> More accurately saying<br />1/6 th body weight during 1st month<br />1/8th body weight during 2nd month<br />1/10th body weight during 3rd month<br /> Instead of using whole milk we can use milk replacer also.<br />
What is milk replacer?<br /><ul><li>It is constituted feed with 25% CP
we can practice mixing of whole milk& milk replacer
we can use cow milk in place of goat milk.</li></li></ul><li>DM<br /><ul><li>Kids start chewing their cuds by 3 weeks
provide good legume hay or fresh green grass and creep feed along with fresh water & salt.
creep feed with a DCP level of 18-20%, TDN 75% and 2.5-2.9 ME/kg,fed at rate of 450g/day.</li></li></ul><li>From 4 months to breeding <br /><ul><li>Fed roughages supplemented with concentrates (15-16% CP level) at rate of 450g daily).
Dairy goats are not allowed to become too fat, for this reduce the intake of energy feeds.
Always provide clean, fresh water and minerals
Commercial mineral mix can be used.</li></li></ul><li>DM<br />Feeding of pregnant goats<br /><ul><li>Provide high quality leguminous fodder adlibitum.
A free choice lick to mineral mix will take care of Ca and P requirement of both dam and foetus.
Allow good grazing</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Reduce the amount of conc. mix to half before some days of kidding
increase amount of bran & succulent type feed to provide more bulk.
After kidding fed the dam with bran & warm water
gradually bring the doe to its full feed for milk production.</li></li></ul><li>DM<br />Feeding of lactating goats<br /><ul><li>Nutrient requirement are higher during lactation.
Ration should contain high quality roughages like Lucerne,Berseem and other cereal grasses.
It will provide fresh nutrients and bulks needed for production of VFAs like acetic, propionic and butyric acid, which are needed for high milk production. </li></li></ul><li><ul><li>A concentrate feed with 14-16% CP level can be fed at the rate of 350g/L of milk obtained.
Add 1% trace mineralized salt and 1% Ca-P mineral mix to this conc mix.</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>Molasses added upto 5-7% of conc mix
It helps to increase palatability and decrease dustiness of feed.
Keep a clean, fresh supply of water at all times.
After 2wks gradually increase conc. level according to milk yield and individual requirement.
Individual requirement can be assessed easily by feeding conc. feed at milking time.</li></li></ul><li>DM<br />Feeding of breeding bucks<br /><ul><li>During non-breeding season, buck doesn’t require additional concentrate if it is on good pasture.
During breeding season, conc. mix fed at the rate of 400-900g/day depending on its body wt.
not allow buck to get too fat, hence reduce intake of energy feeds.
Provide adlib. roughages, clean fresh water and minerals.</li></li></ul><li>Feeding guide for goats<br />