Introduction IP means INTERNET PROTOCOL. Here internet means network of networks & protocol means rules and regulations used by user while using internet. The IP is used for communicating data across a packet switched internetwork.
Version History <ul><li>In May,1974,the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) published a paper titled “A Protocol for packet network interconnection.” </li></ul><ul><li>The proposal had no affiliation with or support by any international standards body, and appears to have gained no traction even within China. </li></ul>
Packetization <ul><li>Data from an upper layer protocol is encapsulated inside one or more packets. </li></ul><ul><li>No circuit setup is required for this thus IP is a connectionless protocol. </li></ul><ul><li>This is unlike Public Switched Telephone Networks that require the setup of a circuit before a phone call may go through. </li></ul>
Services provided by IP <ul><li>IP can be used over a Hetrogeneous network (i.e., ethernet, ATM, Wi-Fi). </li></ul><ul><li>Each data link layer can have its own method of addressing, with a corresponding need of resolve IP address to data link address. This address resolution is handled by the Address Resolution Protocol (ARP). </li></ul>
Reliability <ul><li>IP provides an unreliable service. This means that the network makes no guarantees about the packet and none, some, or all of the following may apply; </li></ul><ul><li>Data corruption </li></ul><ul><li>Out of order delivery </li></ul><ul><li>Lost or dropped packages </li></ul><ul><li>In terms of reliability the only thing IP does is ensure the IP packet’s header is error-free. </li></ul>
IP addressing and routing <ul><li>Perhaps the most complex aspects of IP are IP addressing and routing. Addressing refers to how end hosts become assinged IP addresses and how subnetworks of IP host addresses are divided and grouped together. </li></ul><ul><li>Data always try to travel through shortest path, this process is called Routing. This is done by Routers. </li></ul>
DNS (Domain Name Server) <ul><li>The Domain Name System consists of a hierarchical set of DNS servers. Each domain or subdomain has one or more authoritative DNS servers that publish information about that domain and the name servers of any domains "beneath" it. The hierarchy of authoritative DNS servers matches the hierarchy of domains. At the top of the hierarchy stand the root. </li></ul>