N. Access list : Standard & Extended M. NAT( Network Address Translation ) O. Wireless Techlogies P. IP v6 Q. WAN ( PPP, HDLC, Frame Relay, ISDN )
Course Introduction, Intro to Network, Media , symbols TCP/IP, OSI Layers Networking devices, Cisco 3-layer structure Wireless, IPV6* Wan intro… and practical, NAT, PAT Day 1 Day 2 Day 3 Day 4 Day 5 OSPF(single area), Access control list IP addressing IP classes, Static routing, Dynamic Routing-RIP1, RIP2 Switching Intro.. STP, VLAN, Inter- Vlan-Routing* Practical's of above topics(Cont.) Break Subnetting Super netting, VLSM…… IOS cmds,.. Routing Introduction and its types PPP, HDLC, Frame-Relay, VPN* ISDN* Course Flow Router Intro,components IOS MODES Day 6 Routing IGRP, EIGRP SDM, CNA, DHCP, DNS
TCP/IP Model The TCP/IP Model is a specification for computer network protocols created in the 1970s by DARPA , an agency of the United States Department of Defense . The TCP/IP Model is sometimes called the Internet Reference Model, the DoD Model (DoD stands for Department of Defense) or the ARPANET Reference Model. TCP/IP defines a set of rules to enable computers to communicate over a network , specifying how data should be packaged, addressed, shipped, routed and delivered to the right destination. TCP/IP is generally described as having four 'layers' The TCP/IP Model and related protocols are currently maintained by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
Application Layer – We use this layer for troubleshooting, file transfer, internet activities, and a slew of other activities. This layer interacts with many types of applications, such as a database manager, email program, or Telnet. Transport Layer - The Transport Layer provides flow control, error control, and serves as an interface for network applications.
Internet Layer – The Internet Layer provides logical addressing. More specifically, the internet layer relates physical addresses from the network access layer to logical addresses. This layer also provides routing that may reduce traffic, and supports delivery across an internetwork. Network Access Layer - The Network Access Layer is fairly self explanatory- it interfaces with the physical network. It formats data and addresses data for subnets, based on physical hardware addresses. More importantly, it provides error control for data delivered on the physical network.
<ul><li>To address the problem of network incompatibility, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) researched networking models in order to find a generally applicable set of rules for all networks. </li></ul><ul><li>Using this research, the ISO created a network model that helps vendors create networks that are compatible with other networks. </li></ul><ul><li>The Open System Interconnection (OSI) reference model released in 1984 was the descriptive network model that the ISO created. </li></ul><ul><li>It provided vendors with a set of standards that ensured greater compatibility and interoperability among various network technologies. </li></ul>OSI Model
<ul><li>The OSI reference model has become the primary model for network communications. </li></ul><ul><li>Although there are other models in existence, most network vendors relate their products to the OSI reference model. </li></ul><ul><li>Dividing the network into seven layers provides the following advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It breaks network communication into smaller, more manageable parts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It standardizes network components to allow multiple vendor development and support. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It allows different types of network hardware and software to communicate with each other. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It prevents changes in one layer from affecting other layers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It divides network communication into smaller parts to make learning it easier to understand. </li></ul></ul>
<ul><li>Used for applications specifically written to run over the network </li></ul><ul><li>Allows access to network services that support applications; </li></ul><ul><li>Directly represents the services that directly support user </li></ul><ul><li>applications </li></ul><ul><li>4. Handles network access, flow control and error recovery </li></ul><ul><li>5. Example apps are file transfer,e-mail, NetBIOS-based applications </li></ul>Function DNS; FTP; TFTP; BOOTP (UDP , FOR AUTP IP ADDRESS) ; SNMP (SIMPLE NETWORK MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL- FOR COLLECTING AND MANAGING DEVICES ON N/W E.G. servers,printers , hubs etc.) SMTP; MIME( Multipurpose internet mail extension,in 1992 for sending non-text email-attachments for sending mail e.g. spreadsheet, audiao file etc.); NFS (Network file system, developed by Sun microsystem for file sharing.) ; TELNET; SMB( Server Message Block , for sharing files,printers,) Protocols APPLICATION LAYER ( User Interface )
<ul><li>Translates from application to network format and vice-versa </li></ul><ul><li>all different formats from all sources are made into a common </li></ul><ul><li>uniform format that the rest of the OSI model can understand </li></ul><ul><li>3. responsible for protocol conversion, character conversion, data </li></ul><ul><li>encryption / decryption, expanding graphics commands, data </li></ul><ul><li>compression </li></ul><ul><li>4. sets standards for different systems to provide seamless </li></ul><ul><li>communication from multiple protocol stacks </li></ul><ul><li>5. not always implemented in a network protocol </li></ul>PRESENTATION LAYER Function ( Translation )
A. establishes, maintains and ends sessions across the network B. responsible for name recognition (identification) so only the designated parties can participate in the session C. provides synchronization services by planning check points in the data stream => if session fails, only data after the most recent checkpoint need be transmitted D. manages who can transmit data at a certain time and for how long E. Examples are interactive login and file transfer connections, the session would connect and re-connect if there was an interruption; recognize names in sessions and register names in history NetBIOS , Named Pipes* (mainly used with unix) , RPC SESSION LAYER PROTOCOLS :- Function
TRANSPORT LAYER Function A. additional connection below the session layer B. manages the flow control of data between parties across the network C. divides streams of data into chunks or packets; the transport layer of the receiving computer reassembles the message from packets D. provides error-checking to guarantee error-free data delivery, with on losses or duplications E. provides acknowledgment of successful transmissions; requests retransmission if some packets don’t arrive error-free F. provides flow control and error-handling, maintain v.c. PROTOCOLS :- TCP, ARP, RARP; SPX,ATP (AppleTalk Protocol) Network Components :- Gateway , Advanced Cable Tester, Brouter ( packets; flow control & error-handling )
<ul><li>A. translates logical network address and names to their physical </li></ul><ul><li>address (e.g. computername ==> MAC address) </li></ul><ul><li>B. responsible for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>* addressing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* determining routes for sending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>* managing network problems such as packet switching, data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>congestion and routing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C. if router can’t send data frame as large as the source computer </li></ul><ul><li>sends, the network layer compensates by breaking the data into </li></ul><ul><li>smaller units. At the receiving end, the network layer </li></ul><ul><li>reassembles the data </li></ul>NETWORK LAYER Function IP ; ARP; RARP, ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol, ; RIP; OSPF; IGMP; IPX ; NWLink,NetBEUI, PROTOCOLS :- ( addressing; routing )
A. turns packets into raw bits 100101 and at the receiving end turns bits into packets. B. handles data frames between the Network and Physical layers C. the receiving end packages raw data from the Physical layer into data frames for delivery to the Network layer D. responsible for error-free transfer of frames to other computer via the Physical Layer E. This layer defines the methods used to transmit and receive data on the network. It consists of the wiring, the devices use to connect the NIC to the wiring, the signaling involved to transmit / receive data and the ability to detect signaling errors on the network media DATA LINK LAYER Function ( data frames to bits )
PROTOCOLS :- Bridge , Switch, ISDN Router, Intelligent Hub, NIC Advanced Cable Tester Network Components :- <ul><li>Logical Link Control </li></ul><ul><li>error correction and flow control </li></ul><ul><li>manages link control </li></ul><ul><li>802.1 OSI Model </li></ul><ul><li>802.2 Logical Link Control </li></ul><ul><li>Media Access Control </li></ul><ul><li>communicates with the adapter card </li></ul><ul><li>controls the type of media being used: </li></ul><ul><li>802.3 CSMA/CD (Ethernet) </li></ul><ul><li>802.4 Token Bus (ARCnet) </li></ul><ul><li>802.5 Token Ring </li></ul><ul><li>802.12 Demand Priority </li></ul>
A. Transmits raw bit stream over physical cable B. Defines cables, cards, and physical aspects C. Defines NIC attachments to hardware, how cable is attached to NIC D. Defines techniques to transfer bit stream to cable PHYSICAL LAYER Function PROTOCOLS :- IEEE 802, IEEE 802.2, ISO 2110:1989 ( 25-pole DTE/DCE interface connector and contact number assignments , ISDN Network Components :- Repeater , Multiplexer, Hubs , Passive , Active , TDR ( hardware; raw bit stream )
Encapsulation <ul><li>All communications on a network originate at a source, and are sent to a destination. </li></ul><ul><li>The information sent on a network is referred to as data or data packets. </li></ul><ul><li>If one computer (host A) wants to send data to another computer (host B), the data must first be packaged through a process called encapsulation. </li></ul><ul><li>Encapsulation wraps data with the necessary protocol information before network transit. </li></ul>
Encapsulation <ul><li>Five conversion steps in order to encapsulate data: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Build the data – Layers 7 - 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Package the data for end-to-end transport – Layer 4 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add the network IP address to the header – Layer 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Add the data link layer header and trailer – Layer 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert to bits for transmission – Layer 1 </li></ul></ul>
Encapsulation of Data for Network Delivery Encapsulation of Data for Network Delivery