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Good Manufacturing Practice

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  1. 1. Dr. Mohd. Salleh Punan Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICES IN POSTHARVEST AND MINIMAL PROCESSING OF FRUITS AND VEGETABLES Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute Training Course on Product Quality and Safety Management for Fruits and Vegetables, 17 November 2008
  2. 2. <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Control of packinghouse </li></ul><ul><li>Control of raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>Control of operation </li></ul><ul><li>Control of finished-product </li></ul><ul><li>Traceability </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>Content
  3. 3. <ul><li>Liberalization of international trade </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic and export markets more competitive </li></ul><ul><li>Increase demand and production </li></ul><ul><li>Quality and safety awareness </li></ul>Why post harvest? Introduction
  4. 4. Subjective & difficult to quantify objectively Level where product or services satisfied consumer’s demand Quality
  5. 5. <ul><ul><ul><li>Consistently and reliably delivering products and services that have been predetermined by the markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total quality management from production until marketing levels </li></ul></ul></ul>Good Manufacturing Practices
  6. 6. <ul><li>To control variability in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>growing techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>seasonal effects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>postharvest conditions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>processing techniques </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>human factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>market conditions </li></ul></ul>GMP Fruits and Vegetables
  7. 7. <ul><ul><ul><li>Management of product, process, people and services to customer </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>To overcome quality deterioration </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. GAP Requirements (Post harvest) ELEMENTS SALM EUREPGAP HARVESTING <ul><li>Hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Farm packing </li></ul><ul><li>Hygiene </li></ul><ul><li>Farm packing </li></ul>POST HARVEST <ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Washing </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Washing </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Develop and implement GMP </li></ul><ul><li>Incorporating GAP, HACCP </li></ul><ul><li>Use of national and international standards </li></ul>GMP to Support GAP
  10. 10. <ul><li>Control of packinghouse </li></ul><ul><li>Control of raw materials </li></ul><ul><li>Control of operation </li></ul><ul><li>Control of finished-product </li></ul><ul><li>Traceability </li></ul>GMP Components
  11. 11. Packinghouse Premises or covered area where most of the preparation and minimal processing activities shall be carried out CONTROL OF PACKINGHOUSE
  12. 12. Location of Packinghouse <ul><li>Packinghouse shall be located away from sources of contamination including environmentally polluted area and area subject to flooding or prone to infestations of pests or where wastes cannot be removed effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Packinghouse located on farm or in collection/wholesale/distribution centre shall be in a segregated area </li></ul>
  13. 13. Premises Design <ul><li>The premises should be designed in such a way that the raw products from farm enter at one end and the finished products emerge at the other end </li></ul><ul><li>Unfinished and finished products should be kept separately and never come into contact with each other so as to avoid cross-contamination </li></ul>
  14. 14. Layout Design
  15. 15. Plant hygiene and cleanliness <ul><li>The premises should be well screened with barriers designed to exclude vermin, domestic and wild animals, birds and insects </li></ul><ul><li>Pest control and monitoring should be in place </li></ul><ul><li>Walls, floors and ceilings should be in good condition and easy to clean and sanitize </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive cleaning and sanitation programs should be implemented in the premise, with more emphasis in the minimal processing, packing and storage areas </li></ul><ul><li>Trash and waste material should be placed in a specific area segregated from the processing and storage areas, and be removed regularly </li></ul>
  16. 16. Facilities <ul><li>Water supply </li></ul><ul><li>An adequate supply of potable water with appropriate facilities for its storage, distribution and temperature control shall be available </li></ul><ul><li>Potable water shall be used for processing of minimally processed products and washing of food contact surfaces and equipments </li></ul>
  17. 17. Facilities <ul><li>Equipment and Instruments </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment and utensils used in MP shall be of appropriate design </li></ul><ul><li>Those surfaces/parts that come into contact with food shall be made of non-toxic, smooth and non-porous materials that can be easily cleaned and sanitized e.g. stainless steel </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Facilities, equipment, machines and instruments shall be cleaned and maintained regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Surface of equipment in contact with food shall be cleaned and sanitized before and after each batch operation </li></ul><ul><li>All chemical agents such as fuels, additives, fertilizers, pesticides, sanitizers, etc. should be properly labeled and kept separately from food products and packaging material </li></ul>Sanitary Operation
  19. 19. <ul><li>Produce specification from farm </li></ul><ul><li>Raw material inspection </li></ul>CONTROL OF RAW MATERIALS Raw materials received
  20. 20. <ul><ul><li>Type of produce and variety </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Name/code of supplier, farmer, farm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P&D controls </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maturity and ripening stage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size & grade of produce </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality, appearance, shape, sweetness, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pesticide and fungicide residual limits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Product temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Packaging and transportation methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantity of supply </li></ul></ul>Produce specification from farm
  21. 21. <ul><li>Prepared for produce specification from farm </li></ul><ul><li>Base on National Standards (Malaysian Standards), Regional Standard (ASEAN Standards) or International Standards (CODEX Standards) </li></ul><ul><li>Use specification agreed by both buyer and seller </li></ul>Raw Material Quality Standards
  22. 22. <ul><li>Inspection system conducted consistently </li></ul><ul><li>Use instruments such as balance, thermometer and caliper </li></ul><ul><li>Use Raw Material Specification as reference </li></ul><ul><li>Use Quality Form as in Table 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Decision to accept or reject consignment based on the inspection </li></ul>Raw Material Inspection
  23. 23. Table 1. Form for quality inspection of raw materials RAW MATERIAL INSPECTION SUPPLIER’S INFORMATION Name of Supplier:________________________Date:____________Time:_________ Type of Produce:________________________Quantity:_______________________ Vehicle Reg. No.:_____________________ Produce Temperature:______________ Condition of produce while on the vehicle (packaging, label, arrangement): ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ INSPECTION No. of container Net Damage Reject Accept Weight Weight % Weight % Weight % 1 . . 10 ACTION: 1. Consignment accepted 2. Consignment rejected Reason:____________________________ 3. Consignment accepted with condition:_______________________ For option 2 and 3, return to: Supplier: YES/NO Buyer: YES/NO Packinghouse Manager: YES/NO Inspector’s Signature:________________Supervisor’s Signature:_______________ Name:_____________________________ Name:_____________________________
  24. 24. 60-65 days after anthesis 40-45 days after bagging Harvesting & In-field Handling CONTROL OF OPERATION
  25. 25. <ul><li>Produce packed according to the market’s specification </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring process and products microbiological, chemical or physical hazards (HACCP) </li></ul>Packinghouse operation
  26. 26. <ul><li>  Type of Produce and Variety </li></ul><ul><li>Packer’s Name/Code </li></ul><ul><li>Size and Grade of Produce </li></ul><ul><li>Quantity, appearance, shape, sweetness, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Packaging and Labelling </li></ul><ul><li>Storage & Shelf life </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerance to damage </li></ul><ul><li>P&D and Quarantine practices </li></ul>Finished-product Specification
  27. 27. Sorting Trimming Washing Drying Receiving Flow of Packing Operation P&D Treatments Grading Packaging
  28. 28. <ul><li>Produce peel/cut into ready-to-eat portion </li></ul><ul><li>Ease in serving portion of large & difficult to peel fruit </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce packaging and transportation costs </li></ul><ul><li>More convenience </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain freshness </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring process and products microbiological, chemical or physical hazards (HACCP) </li></ul>Minimal Processing
  29. 29. Storage Ripening Washing Minimal Processing Packaging Receiving Minimal Processing Unit Operation
  30. 30. Table 2. Form for inspection of finished-product FINISHED-PRODUCT INSPECTION Product:_______________________ Packinghouse:_________________________ Code:________________________ Date of Inspection:_______________________ Sampel No.:_______________________Time of Sampling:_____________________ 1. Presentation and label: Suitability of box/container Cleanliness, accepted/not Information labeled/enough/not Class/grade written/not Date of packing Code of Supplier/Packer Posthatvest practice 2. Weight/Quantity of product: Gross weight Net weight CONTROL OF FINISHED-PRODUCT
  31. 31. 3. Product Quality: Total/% comply specification Total/% damage due to: * outside size/weight range * physical /mechanical * rotten/disease * maturity/ripening * temperature * appearance/shape * others 4. Follow-up handling: Storage/transport temperature Arrangement/palletization ACTION: Product comply all specification: YES/NO Action taken if not comply specification:__________________________________ Product shelf life could be maintained: YES/NO Inspector’s Signature:________________Supervisor’s Signature:_______________ Name:_____________________________ Name:_____________________________
  32. 32. <ul><li>Maintain cold chain system </li></ul><ul><li>Monitor storage and transport temperature </li></ul><ul><li>Scheduled quality analysis of stored produce </li></ul>Cold Chain
  33. 33. Transportation <ul><li>Domestic </li></ul><ul><li>Regional </li></ul><ul><li>Long distance </li></ul>
  34. 34. Air shipment <ul><li>Emphasis on suitable packaging, maintenance of cold chain before and after distribution </li></ul>
  35. 35. Sea shipment <ul><li>Refrigeration </li></ul>
  36. 36. Market Display
  37. 37. <ul><li>Quality forms should be prepared and filled by trained inspector </li></ul><ul><li>All activities, analysis, inspection and quality level of product should be documented </li></ul><ul><li>Every record should be cleared, dated and signed by supervisor for endorsement </li></ul>Record & Documentation TRACEABILITY
  38. 38. <ul><li>Specific record book/file should be used for documentation </li></ul><ul><li>Keep all information systematically for review and auditing from time to time, especially in any dispute on the quality of product supplied by the supplier </li></ul>Record & Documentation
  39. 39. <ul><li>Improvement in quality & safety could be done through the implementation of GMP </li></ul><ul><li>High quality and safe produce should be beneficial to all parties </li></ul><ul><li>Positive measures to improve quality and safety of agricultural produce should be done continuously by all agencies/bodies involve </li></ul>CONCLUSIONS
  40. 40. Dr. Mohd. Salleh Punan THANK YOU Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute