Major Areas of this Chapter Items Available from the Forest Benefits from the Forest How are forest products are useful for forest people How the industrialization affected the forest Meaning and Causes of Deforestation Meaning of Commercial Forestry Meaning of Forest Management Meaning of Scientific forestry Meaning of Shifting cultivation New Trades and New Employments Rebellion in the forest/ Case Study- Bastar and Java Dutch Scientific Forestry Samins Challenge War and Deforestation New Developments in Forestry
ITEMS AVAILABLE FROM THE FOREST Timber – For manufacturing the infrastructures like desks, benches, Door, Windows etc… Construction of buildings Paper, Dyes use to colour the cloth, Tea, Honey, Rubber, Coffee, spices Fuel, Fodder and grass for animals (cattle food Medicinal- fruits, flowers, herbs, plants, roots Animals, Birds etc…In the Amazon forests or in the western ghats- 500 different medicinal plant in one forest patch
Benefits from the Forest It helping for Soil Conservation It Protecting the Wild animals, birds and medicinal plants Offer good employment opportunities Maintaining the Climate Maintaining the life of the Tribal people It maintain the life of Rural and Urban people (providing necessary things)
Forest products useful for the forest People Fruits and Tuber- Nutritious to eat in monsoon season Herbs- Medicine Wood- Agricultural implements like yokes and Ploughs Bamboo- Making for basket and umbrellas Dried Scooped-portable water bottle Leaves- Plates and Cups Oil for cooking and to light lamps can be pressed from the fruit of the mahua tree.
How industrialisation affected the Forest In the period between 1700 and 1995, was a period of industrialisation 13.9 million sq km of forest or 9.3% of total world forest area was cleared for industrial uses, cultivation, Pastures, fuel wood. Text page No: 77 ( Features of Sal forest in Chhattisgarh)
What is Deforestation/ MeaningThe disappearance of forest is called Deforestation. In an area deforested the trees there are cut down or destroyed. In India the deforestation is not a recent problem. But under the British rule it became more systematic and extensive.
CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION (OR) Between 1880 and 1920, forest cover in the Indian Subcontinent declined by 9.7 million hectares from 108.6 million hectares to 98.9 million hectares- Discuss the causes DeforestationAgriculture Railway Tea/ Coffee Ship Commercial TribalExpansion Plantation Building Farming Peasant
1. AGRICULTURE EXPANSION In 1600, one sixth of India’s total area was under cultivation But at present half of the total area using for cultivation As a result of the population increased, the demand for food increased. So the peasants extended the boundaries of cultivation. So that they cleared the forest. During the time of colonial rule cultivation extended rapidly based on two reason.1. British encouraged the production of commercial crop like jute, sugar, wheat and cotton. In 19th century the demand of food crops and food grains increased in Europe as a result of the increased population.
2. In 19th century, the colonial rule considered forest were unproductive. So they cleared the land for cultivation and they thought that agriculture product and revenue increase the income of the state. So between 1880 and 1920, cultivated area rose by 6.7 million hectares. 2. RAILWAYRailways were essential for colonial trade and for the movement of imperial rule. They used wood for fuel and to lay railway line sleepers were essential to hold the track together. In 1860 railway network increased rapidly. In 1890, 25,500 km of track had been laid. In 1946 length increased to 765,000 KM. In 1850, Madras province annually cuted 35ooo trees for sleepers. Each mile of railway track required between 1760 to 2000 sleepers. The govt gave the contracts to individuals and they cleared the
3. PLANTATIONSThe natural forest areas were cleared to make the plantations. As a result of the growing needs of the Europeans different types of plantations were introduced like coffee, tea and rubber. The colonial government took over the forest, and gave vast areas to European planters at cheap rates. They cleared the forest and planted coffee, tea and rubber. 4. SHIPPINGIn 19th century, Oak forest disappeared in England. It created problem of timber supply for the Royal navy for making the ship. So in 1820, they sent the search parties to search the forest resources of India. With in few decades, large scale of timber were exported from India
5. COMMERCIAL FORESTRYThe British considered the old trees had no use. So that why they cut all the trees and planted same type of tree in a straight row only for a commercial purposes. As a result the natural forest has been disappeared. 6. THE ROLE OF TRIBALS AND PEASANTSAs a part of the shifting cultivation, they cut and burnt the forest in rotation. They sowed seeds in the ashes after the first monsoon rain. This process harmful for the forest. There aws always a danger of forest fire.
During the time of colonial rule cultivation extended rapidly increased in India Why? In 1880 to 1920, cultivated area in India increased in to 6.7 million hect- WhyDuring the time of colonial rule cultivation extended rapidly based on two reason.1. British encouraged the production of commercial crop like jute, sugar, wheat and cotton. In 19th century the demand of food crops and food grains increased in Europe as a result of the increased population.2. In 19th century, the colonial rule considered forest were unproductive. So they cleared the land for cultivation and they thought that agriculture product and revenue increase the income of the state. So between 1880 and 1920, cultivated area rose by 6.7 million hectares
How and Why Commercial Forestrycome in India? (or)Role of Dietrich Brandis in IndianForest System (or)Describe about Indian Forest Actin1865
As a result of the rapid decline of forest the British govt worried that the use of forests by local people and reckless felling of trees by traders would destroy the forests (Why the British worried about the forest) So they invite a German expert, Dietrich Brandis, for advice and made him first Inspector General of Forest in India. He believed that a proper system had to be introduced to manage the forest and people had to be trained in the science of conservation. He set up Indian Forest Service in 1864 and he formulated Indian Forest Act in 1865. He made rules and system made legal sanction.
Felling of trees and grazing was restricted and forest could preserved only for timber production. Any body violate the rules had been punished. The Imperial Research Institute was set up at Dehradun in 1906. The system they taught here was called Scientific forestry. In scientific forestry, natural forests which had lots of different type of trees were cut down. In there place, one type of trees was planted in straight rows for commercial purposes. This is called Plantations. Forest officials surveyed the forest, estimated the area under different type of trees, and made working plans for forest management. They planned how much of the plantation area to cut every year. The area cut was then to be replanted so that it was ready to be cut again in some
How the Indian Forest Act affected the life of the Indian Forest people? Everyday Practices : cutting wood for their houses, grazing their cattle, collecting fruits and roots, hunting and fishing became illegal. So the people forced to steal wood from the forest, and if they were caught, they were at the mercy of the forest guards who would take bribes from them. Police constables and forest guards would harass people by demanding free food from them. The govt banned shifting cultivation. They considered it a waste of fertile land which could instead be used for growing railway timber. Communities were forcibly displaced from their homes in the forests.
Usage of Forest to different Sector Groups (or)How did villagers and foresters differ in theideas of good forest? Villagers: They wanted forest with a mixture of species to satisfy different needs- fuel, fodder, leaves. Forest Department: Wanted trees which were suitable for building ships or railways. They needed trees that could provide hard wood, and were tall and straight. Eg: Teak and Sal. Forest Peoples: Fruits and Tuber, Herbs, Wood, Leaves, Bamboos, Dried Scooped, Mahua trees oil etc….
Scientific ForestryA system of Cutting trees controlled by the forest Department in which old trees were cut down and new one type of tree was planted in straight rows. Forest ManagementIt is a system for the management of forest. The forest officials surveyed the forest, estimated the area under different type of trees, and made working plan for forest management. They planned how much of the plantation area to cut every year. The area cut was then to be replanted.
PlantationIn scientific forestry, natural forests which had lot of different types of trees were cut down. In their place, one type of tree was planted in straight rows. This is called plantation. Shifting CultivationIs a traditional agricultural practice in many parts of Asia, Africa and South America. It is otherwise known as swidden agriculture or slash and burn activity. In shifting cultivation, parts of the forest are cut and burnt in rotation. Seeds are sown in the ashes after the monsoon rains, and the crop is harvested by October- November. Such plots are cultivated for a couple of years and then fallow for 12 to 18 years for the forest to grow back. A mixture of crops is grown on these plots.
Local Names of Shifting CultivationLading- Southeast Asia Milpa- Central AmericaChitemmene or Tavy- AfricaChena- SrilankaIndia- dhya, penda, bewar, nevad, jhum, podu, khandad, kumri
Why the British banned the Shifting Cultivation1. European foresters regarded shifting cultivation was harmful for the forest. They felt that land which was used for cultivation every few years could not grow trees for railway timber.2. When a forest was burnt, there was added danger of the flames spreading and burning valuable timber.3. It made it harder for the government to calculate taxes.So govt decided to ban the shifting cultivation. As a result many communities were forcibly displaced from their homes in the forest. So had to change occupations, while some resisted through large and small scale rebellions.
Why the ecologists criticised theScientific Forestry?In scientific forestry, natural forests which had lot of different type of trees were cut down. In that place only one type tress are planting . So rare species of trees, animals and birds is disappearing when the use of cientic forestry.
Amendment of Indian Forest Act 1865The Indian Forest Act amended twice in the years 1878 and 1927. The 1878 Act divided forests into three categories. 1. Reserved Forest 2. Protected Forest 3. Village ForestReserved Forest: The best forest were called Reserved Forest. The village could not take anything from the forest, even for their own use.For house building or fuel, they could take wood from Protected or Village forests.
How the Forest Act affected the life of the hunters? The forest law affected the life of the forest people. Before forest law many people they were survived by hunting deer, partridges and variety of small animals- it was prohibited by the forest laws. Those who were caught hunting were punished for poaching.
What was the reason during the period of the British hunting increased rapidly and various species became almost extinct? The hunting of Tigers and other animals had been the part of the culture in India especially during the Mughal period. But the British saw large animals as signs of a wild, primitive and savage society. They believed that by the killing of dangerous animals the British would civilize Indians. They gave rewards for the killing of tigers, wolves and other large animals on the ground that they posed an threat to the cultivators. Many areas were reserved for hunting. As a result various species became almost extinct during the British period
New Job Employment/ Trade/ Service after the introduction of Forest Department The people lost out their job in many ways after the Forest Department but some people benefited from the new opportunities that had opened up in trade. Many communities left their traditional job and started trading in forest product. It happened in all over the World. BrazilWith the growing demand of Rubber in 19th century, Mundurucu people of the Brazilian Amazon who lived in villages on high ground and cultivated manioc, began to collect latex from wild rubber trees for supplying to traders. Gradually, they descended to live in trading posts and became completely dependent on traders.
IndiaIn India, the trade in forest products was not new. From the medieval period onwards, Adivasi communities trading elephants, horns, silk, cocoons, ivory, bamboo, spices, fibres, grasses and gums through nomadic communities like Banjaras.But during the British government some European trading firms occupied the sale of forest product in some particular areas. Grazing and hunting by local people were restricted.Especially from Madrass Korava, Karacha and Yerukula nomadic communities lost their jobs. Some of them began to called Criminal Tribes were forced to work factories, mines and plantation under the government supervision.
Assam: both men and women from forest communities like SanthalsJharkhand : OraonsChattisgarh : Gonds were recruited to work on tea plantations. Their wages were low and condition of work were very bad. They could not easily return to their home villages.