Reconstruction of Economy-Hitler Hitler assigned the economic recovery to the economist Hjalmar Schavat. They aimed at full production and full employment through a state-funded work-creation progreamme. This product produced the famous German superhighways and the peoples car, volswagen.
Foreign Policy- Hitler In Foreign policy Hitler acquired quick success. He pulled out of the League of Nation in 1933, reoccupied Rhinland in 1936. He integrated Austria with Germany under the slogan- One people, one Nation and one Leader. He went to wrest (capture) German speaking Sudentenland from Checkoslovakia He earned unspoken support from England, which had considered versaille verdict too harsh. These quick success at home and abroad seemed to reverse the destiny of the country.
Course (or) Events- 2nd W.W 1939 Sep-Germany invaded Poland. This started a war with France and England. 1940 Sep- Tripartite pact was signed- Germany, Italy and Japan It strengthend the power of Hitler and he became an international power. Puppet regims, supportive of Nazi, were installed in large part of Europe. End of 1940- Hitler was at the pinnacle of his power. Hitler moved to achieve long term aim of conquering Eastern Europe. He wanted to ensure food supplies and living space for Germans.
1941 June- attacked Soviet Union. In this historical blunder Hitler exposed German western front to British aerial bombing and the eastern front to powerful Soviet armies. The Soviet Red army has defeated Germany in Stalingrad. They hounded out the retreating German soldiers until they reached the Berlin. It helped the Soviet to establish their hegemony in East Europe. USA did not entered the war- they feared a economic crisis once again like after the first W.W But it could not stay out of the war for long.
Japan tried to expand their power in the East. They occupied French Indo China, they planned to attacks on US naval base in Pacific. Japan extended their support to Hitler and bombed the US base at Pearl Harbor. Finally US entered in to the second W.W. In May 1945 the Second World war comes to an end of the defeat of Germany and Hitler committed suicide. U S dropped atom bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan.
The Nazis Worldview Briefly explain the major ideologies of Nazism (or) Peculiar features of Nazi thinking. (or) Explain the idea of racialism put forward by Hitler (or) Role of Darwin and Spencer in the Nazi ideology (or) The meaning of desirable and undesirable in the Nazi thinking. (or) Why the Nazis considered the Jews and Gypsies are the enemies of Germany.
The Nazi ideology was synonymous with (H) world view. According to this no equality between the people only the racial hierarchy. Blue-eyed Nordic German Aryans- at the top & Jews located at the lowest rung. Jews were considered as anti race or arch enemies of Aryans Other coloured people were placed in different place according to their physical features. Hitler idea of racism borrowed from- the thinkers like Charles Darwin and Herbert Spencer. Darwin a natural scientist- father of evolution theory- put forward the idea of evolution and natural selection. Spencer- Survival of the fittest. The Nazi argument was simple the strongest race will survive and weak one would perish.
The Nazis believed that the Aryan race was the finest, it had to retain purity, become stronger and dominate the world. Another aspect of (H) ideology was- concept of Lebensraum or living space. He believed that new territories need for settlement. This enabled the settlers a new land to retain an intimate link with place of their origin. The German boundaries by moving eastwards, concentrated all Germans geographically one place. Poland became the laboratory of their experimentation.
Nazis tried to the physical elimination of undesirable in the extended empire. They wanted only Pure and Healthy Nordic Aryans. They alone were considered Desirable. Only the worthy and prosperous- Desirable and others were considered Undesirable. This meant even those Germans who were seen impure or abnormal had no right to exist.
Nazis approach- Non Jews Gypsies and Blacks in Germany considered as racial inferiors, who threatened the biological purity of Superior Aryans race. They were widely persecuted. Even Russian and Poles- Subhuman, and hence undeserving of any humanity. Germany- captured Poland and parts of Russia- and civilians were forced to work as slave labour. Many of them died simply through hardwork and starvation.
Nazis Approach- Jews Jews faced worst sufferings from Nazis. They hatred of Jews had a precursor in the traditional Christian hostility towards Jews. They had been stereotyped (no changing) as killers of Christ and usurers (money lenders) Medieval times Jews were barred from owning land. They survived mainly through trade and money lending. They lived in separately marked areas- Ghettos They were often persecuted through periodic organized violence and expulsion from the land. Hitler hatred Jews was based on pseudoscientific theories of race- no solution to Jewish problem It could be solved only through their total elimination.
1933-1939- Nazis terrorised, pauperised (absolute poverty) and segregated the Jews, compelling them leave the country. 1939-1945- aimed at concentrating them in certain areas and eventually killing them in gas chambers in Poland.
Nazis approach- Poles (or) Racial ideas (Utopia) of Nazis Genocide and war became two sides of same coin. Nazis occupied Poland and divided. North western Poland was annexed to Germany. Poles were forced to leave their homes and properties behind to be occupied by ethnic Germans brought in from occupied Europe. Poles were then herded like cattle in the other part called the general govt, the destination of all undesirables of the empire. Members of Polish intelligentsia were murdered in large number- for to keep the entire people intellectually and spiritually servile.
The Polish children who looked like Aryans were forcibly snatched from their mothers and examined by race experts. If they passed the race test they were raised in German families and if not, they were deposited in orphanages were most perished. Largest ghettos, gas chambers, general govt- served as killing field for the Jews.
Gypsy Usurers The group that were Money lenders charging classified as Gypsy had excessive interest; often their own community used a term abuse. identity. Sinti and Roma were two such communities. Many of them traced their origin in India.
Pauperised Persecution Reduce to absolute Systematic, organised poverty punishment of those belonging to a group or religion.
The Nuremberg Laws of citizenship- Sep-1935 (or) This Laws were against the Jews- Discuss (or)This Laws helped the Nazis for the Exclusion ofJews from Germany- Examine (or)This Laws was the first step of Jews to the Death-Analyse
1. Only persons or German or related blood would henceforth be German citizens enjoying the protection of the German empire. 2.Marriage between Germans and Jews were forbidden. 3.Extramarital relations between Germans and Jews became a crime. Jews were forbidden to fly the national flag.Other some legal measures Boycott of Jewish business. Expulsion from govt services. Forced selling and confiscation (take possession as punishment) of their properties.
Steps to Death Stage 1 : Exclusion (1933-1939) Stage 2: ghettoisation (1940- 1944) Stage 3: Annihilation (1941 onwards)Stage 1: Exclusion (1933-1939) Nuremberg Laws of citizenship Sep :1935 Other Legal measures.Besides, Jewish properties were vandalised and looted, house attacked, Synagogues burnt and men arrested in a pogrom (organised massacre) in November 1938, remembered as the night of broken glass.
Stage :2 Ghettoisation : 1940-1944 Sep 1941, all Jews had to wear a yellow star of David on their breasts. The identity mark was stamped on their passport, all illegal documents and houses. They were kept in Jewish house in Germany, and ghettos like Lodz and Warsaw in the east. These became sites of extreme misery and poverty. Jews had to surrender all their wealth before they entered a ghetto. Soon the ghettos were brimming with hunger, starvation and disease due to deprivation and poor hygiene.
Stage 3 :Annihilation -1941 onwards Jews from Jewish house, concentration camps and ghettos from different parts of Europe were brought to death factories by goods train. In Poland and elsewhere in East, most notably Belzek, Auschwitz, Sobibor, Treblinka, Chelmno and majdanek, they were charred in gas chambers Mass killing took place within minutes with scientific precision.
Nazism and Children The Schooling system under Nazism in Germany (or) Hitler thought that Nazi society could be establish only by teaching children Nazi ideology- critically examine. (or) All schools were cleansed and purified by the Nazis- Why? (or) What happened in schools under Nazism? The sports activity in school under Nazi was a spirit of violence and aggression- why?
Hitler thought that a strong Nazi society could be establish only by teaching children Nazi ideology All schools were cleansed and purified. The teachers from Jewish community and politically unreliable were dismissed. Children were first segregated, Germans and Jews could not sit together or play together. The undesirable children – Jews, gypsies, physically handicapped were thrown out of the school. Finally 1940’s they were taken to the gas champers. Good German children were subjected to a process of Nazi schooling, a prolonged period of ideological training.
School text books were rewritten. Racial science was introduced to justify Nazi ideas of race. Stereotypes about Jews were popularised even through math class. Children were taught to be loyal and submissive, hate Jews and worship Hitler. The function of sports was to nurture a spirit of violence and aggression among the children. Hitler believed that boxing could make children iron hearted, strong and masculine. All the boys – 6 to 10 went through a preliminary training of Nazi ideology, at the end they take a oath of loyalty to Hitler.
“In the presence of this blood banner whichrepresents our Fuher I swear (promise) to devote allmy energies and my strength to the saviour of ourcountry, Adolf Hitler. I am willing and ready to give upmy life for him, so help me God”
Briefly describe the Youth organisation in Germany under Nazis? The Role of Youth in Nazis rule- Discuss Hitler was fanatically interested in the Youth. Youth Organisations were made responsible for educating German Youth in the spirit of Nationalism. Ten years old had to enter Jungvolk (Nazis Youth group for children below 14 years old) At 14, had to join nazi Youth organisation Hitler Youth. Where they learnt to worship war, glorify aggression and violence, condemn democracy, hate Jews, communists, Gypsies and all those categorised as undesirable. After a period of rigorous ideological and physical training they joined the Labour Service. Usually at the age of 18.
Then they had to serve in the Armed Forces and enter one of the Nazi organisation. The Youth league of Nazis formed in 1922, four years later it renamed Hitler Youth. To unify the youth movement under Nazi control, all other youth organisation were systematically dissolved and finally banned.
Briefly describe the role of women in Nazi rule. (or) To encourage produce more children Nazis awarded Golden crosses to the women- Verify this statement. (or) In my sate the mother is the important citizen- statement made by Hitler in 1933- critically examine this statement. (or) I have sulled the honour of the nation- it is a punishment given to the women- analyse the circumstances.
Nazism and Womens Nazis considered that women were radically different from men. The fight for equal right, part of democratic struggle everywhere was wrong and it would destroy society. Boys- be aggressive, masculine and steel hearted. Girls- become good mothers and rear poor blooded Aryan children. Girls- maintain purity of the race, keep distance from Jews, look after home, teach their children Nazi values, for to bear the Aryan race and culture. 1933- Hitler said “ In my state the mother is the important citizen.
But Nazi Germany all mothers were not treated equally. Women who bore racially undesirable children were punished and those who produced racially desirable children were awarded. They got good facilities in hospitals and concessions in shops, theatre, railway etc.. To encourage to produce many children Honour crosses were awarded. Bronze- 4 children, Silver- 6 children, Gold- eight and more. Aryan women who deviated from the prescribed code of conduct were severely punished.
Those who maintained contact with Jews, Poles and Russians were paraded through the town with shaved heads, blackened faces and placards hanging around their necks announcing “ I have sulled the honour of the nation” Many received jail and sentences and lost civic honour as well as their husbands and families for this criminal offence.
Nazis language To find out various words used by the Nazis for the communication (or) Nazis used different labels for the communication- draw up a list of labels (or) Nazis used the term disinfection areas for to address Gas champers- find out some more words
The Nazis used language and media with care, and often great effect. The terms they used to describe their various practices are not only deceptive. They are chilling. They never used the term kill or murder in thier official communication. Mass Killing - Special treatment, final solution (Jews) Euthanasia (for the disabled), selection and disinfections. Evacuation - deporting people to gas champers. Disinfection areas - gas champers (looked like bathrooms equipped with fake showerheads)
Media and Nazism Nazis had properly utilised the media for the propagation of their ideas- Justify (or) The role of media for the propagation of Nazis world view- describe (or) Nazis ideas spread through- visual images, film, radio, posters, catchy slogan, leaflets- prove this statement with examples.
Media was carefully used to win support for the regime and popularise its world views. Nazis ideas spread through- visual images, film, radio, posters, catchy slogan, leaflets. In posters- mocked, abused and described as evils to the enemies of Germany. Socialists and liberals were represented as weak and degenerate. They were attacked as malicious foreign agents. Propaganda films were made to create hatred for Jews. The most infamous film was- The Eternal Jew. Orthodox Jews were stereotyped and marked. They were shown with flowing beards wearing kaftans, however in reality it was difficult to distinguish German Jews by their outward appearance bcz highly
They were referred- vermin (harmful to society animals/humans), rats and pests. Their movt compared to those of rodents (animal that gnaws). Nazism worked on the mind of the people, tapped their emotions and turned their hatred and anger at those marked as undesirable. The Nazis made equal efforts to appeal to all the different sections of the population. They sought to win their support by suggesting that Nazis alone could solve all their problems.