1. How the people in Bastar protected their forest (Or) To prepare a note about the beliefs and customs of the people of Bastar Answer: Different communities like Maria, Muria, Gonds, Dhurwas, Bharats and Halbs lived in Bastar. They spoke different languages but they followed common customs and beliefs. They believed that each village was given by earth and in return, they need to do some offerings at each agriculture festival. In addition to the earth, they show respect to the spirit of the river, the forest and mountain. The villagers they need to look all the natural resources within the boundary. Some villagers they protected their forest by engaging watchmen and each members of the village contribute some grain to pat them. Regular meeting was conducted every year and the headmen of the village pargana (Cluster of villages) would discuss issues including forest.2. To prepare a note about the kalangs community in Java. Answer: The Kalangs of Java were a community of skilled forest cutters and shifting cultivators. In 1755 the Mataram kingdom of Java split, the 6000 Kalang families equally divided between the two kingdoms. Without their help to harvest the teak and for the kings to build their palaces was not possible. In 18th century, the Dutch tried to make the kalangs work under them. In 1770, the kalangs resisted by attacking a Dutch fort at Joana, but it was surppressed.3. Why did the people of Bastar protest against the British? How they organized their rebellions? Answer: The people of Bastar become worried about the British government and proposed to reserve two thirds of the forest in 1905 and stop shifting cultivation, hunting and collection of forest products.
Some villagers were allowed to stay in the reserved forest, but they need to work for the British government cutting and transporting trees, and protecting forest from forest fires. These places were known as forest village. The people of other villages were displaced without any notice or compensation. The terrible famine in 1899-1900 and again 1907-1908 added to their problems. To oppose these policies under the leadership of Dhurwas of Kanger forest took the initiatives. In 1910 mango boughs a lump of earth, chillies and arrows, began circulating between villages. Every village contributed something to the rebellion expenses. Bazaars were looted. The houses of officials and traders, schools and police stations were burnt and robbed and grain redistributed. But the British reacted harshly to it and sent troops to suppress the rebellion. The surrounded Adivasi’s camps and fired. The people who took part in the rebellion were beaten and punished. Most villages were deserted as people fled into the villages. It took three months for the British regain the control. However they never managed to capture Gunda Dhur, the prominent leader of the tribal movement.4. What policy followed by the Dutch in Java to control the forest? Answer: Java is one of the rice producing islands in Indonesia. But once upon a time it was covered mostly with forest. The Dutch started forest management and they wanted the timber for making the ships. The people in java engaged in shifting cultivation. The Kalangs community in Java was skilled forest cutters and shifting cultivators. In 1755 the Mataram kingdom of Java split, the 6000 Kalang families equally divided between the two kingdoms. But without their help to harvest the teak and for the kings to build their palaces was not possible. In 18th century, the Dutch tried to make the kalangs work under them. In 1770, the kalangs resisted by attacking a Dutch fort at Joana, but it was suppressed. In 19th century Dutch formed a forest law in Java and restricted the villagers to access the forest. After that the wood were cut only for some special purpose like making
river boat or constructing house. The villagers were punished or grazing cattle and transporting wood without permit or travelling forest road with horse carts or cattle. In 1882 two lakh eighty thousand sleepers were exported from Java. The Dutch imposed rents on land being cultivated in the forest and then exempted some villages from these rents if they worked collectively to provide free labour and buffaloes for cutting and transporting timber. This was known as Blandongdiensten system5. What do you mean by Blandongdiensten system? Answer: The Dutch imposed rents on land being cultivated in the forest and then exempted some villages from these rents if they worked collectively to provide free labour and buffaloes for cutting and transporting timber. This was known as Blandongdiensten system.6. How the Wars affected the forest? Answer: In India forest department had cut the trees freely to meet British war needs. This blind destruction and cutting down of forests to fulfill war requirements affects forests as they get depleted rapidly and are slow to grow back. In Java, the just before the Japanese occupied the region, the Dutch followed a ‘Scorched earth policy’ destroying sawmills, and burning huge piles of giant teak logs so that they would not fall into Japanese hands. The Japanese then exploited the forest recklessly for own war industries, forced forest villagers to cut down forest. Many villagers used this opportunity to expand cultivation in the forests. After the war the Indonesian government faced lot difficult to get this land back.7. The similarities in between the Bastar and Java related with the colonial forest management. Answer: The Bastar forest management was under the control of British and Java was under the control of the Dutch. Both governments had need timber for their own use. Both governments had banned the shifting cultivation. Both governments had displaced the local communities from the forest area. Those who were worked for the colonial government were allowed to stay in the forest. For this purpose the Dutch government introduced the Blandongdiensten system.
The rebellions in both Bastar and Java were suppressed by the colonial government.