Sustainability of the OpenSim Community: A Research Agenda
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Sustainability of the OpenSim Community: A Research Agenda

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The following is a presentation on the Sustainability of the OpenSim Community. It outlines a research agenda currently being conducted by researchers in Sweden and the United States on the use of ...

The following is a presentation on the Sustainability of the OpenSim Community. It outlines a research agenda currently being conducted by researchers in Sweden and the United States on the use of private-collective communities for value creation.

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  • http://opensourceecology.org/wiki/Marcin_Jakubowski
  • RT: presents Threadless, http://www.nickburcher.com/2009/05/threadless-twitter-tees-another-example.html1,530,000 followers on TwitterThe whole business model for Threadless is based on an implicit understanding of how the social web works and gives a great demonstration of how communities can be built and harnessed across an organisation. Identifying online enthusiasts and passion groups and then using social platforms to bring them into the core of a business would appear to be a more powerful way of utilising social opportunities than just running ads on Facebook - but it requires a good deal more commitment. The media aspect of social offers some exciting opportunities for brands, but the potential of the social web can be significantly greater if the power of community is fully realised.
  • http://ez.no/company/news/ez_systems_wins_the_red_herring_global_100Selected as a Red Herring 100 winner is a mark of distinction and high honor. Only 200 companies are chosen as finalists out of a pool of thousands. Of those finalists Red Herring selected 100 companies as winners. To decide on these companies the Red Herring editorial team diligently surveys entrepreneurship around the globe. Technology industry executives, investors, and observers regard the Red Herring 100 lists as invaluable instruments to discover and advocate the promising startups that will lead the next wave of disruption and innovation. Past award winners include Google, Yahoo!, Skype, Netscape, Salesforce.com, and YouTube.
  • Background Image Attribution: http://www.flickr.com/photos/atranman/5016786784/sizes/l/
  • Background Image Attribution: http://www.flickr.com/photos/atranman/5016786784/sizes/l/
  • (RQ2a)What motivates an individual to contribute privately held, valuable resources to a collective that will make the outcome of his or her efforts free to any that seek it?
  • Image Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/gordonbanderson/4624435018/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  • Contingency-based perspective supports importance of examining environmental conditions for organizing. Weick transitions you into adaptive governance and social-ecological systems which then moves you into network perspective.
  • The orange nodes will move over to the extrinsic, intangible resource quadrant when you click to move forward. One node disappears. This can demonstrate what happens after an event occurs that alters the dynamics of the community (e.g., ReactionGrid). Developers initially are doing this intrinsically, but then ReactionGrid makes their move and one developer leaves in disgust and the other two move toward a more competitive, self-interested motivation based on how ReactionGrid altered the community.
  • Image Source: http://www.flickr.com/photos/rammorrison/2651957971/sizes/z/in/photostream/

Sustainability of the OpenSim Community: A Research Agenda Sustainability of the OpenSim Community: A Research Agenda Presentation Transcript

  • SETTING THE STAGE --- EXPLORING ACTOR ROLES FOR PRIVATE- COLLECTIVE COMMUNITY SUSTAINABILITY RESEARCH-IN-PROGRESS Robin Teigland Paul M. Di GangiStockholm School of Economics Loyola University Maryland Zeynep Yetis Stockholm School of Economics October 2011
  • OverviewIntroduction & Research QuestionsResearch SettingProposed MethodologyExpected ContributionsQuestions & Answers Thank You!
  • Models of Knowledge Creation Microsoft ~ Built by employees within organizational boundariesThe Firm vs The Collective Linux ~ Built by users and distributed freely regardless of affiliation
  • Communities expanding across industries• Software (e.g., LINUX, Apache, and MySQL)• Pharmaceuticals (e.g., pinkarmy)• Physical goods (e.g., farm machinery)
  • Threadless:What came first –the community or the company?
  • 5,000+ 40,900 230+ eZ Customers in Community 70 emp Partners 130 countries members• Open source content management software• 70 employees in 9 countries (US, Europe & Asia)• Customers: Financial Times, Wall Street Journal, UN, Vogue, Hitachi, 3M, MIT
  • Private-collective Community (von Hippel & von Krogh 2003)Community and firm share experiences and knowledge to co-create valueCommunity is a complementary asset to beleveraged and combined with firm’s internal assets to deliver competitive solutions (Dahlander & Wallin 2006)
  • But there’s tension... Collective Model Openness and free distribution of intellectual ideas for common or public good VS Private Model Distribution of returnsand delegation of value creation solely to organization
  • Our Primary Research QuestionHow do private-collective communities sustain themselves despite the challenges that the tension produces?
  • Research Question One Level of Analysis = Community (not the individual nor the firm) (RQ1) Who are the key actors in a private- collective community, what roles do they fulfill, and what resources do they contributeto the community to ensure its sustainability?
  • Research Question Two• Individual motivations from self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985; Gagné & Deci, 2005; See summary by von Krogh et al., Forthcoming) – Intrinsic (e.g., fun, enjoyment) – Internalized extrinsic (e.g., reputation, reciprocity, learning, and own-use) – Extrinsic (e.g., career and pay)• Particularly when firms can freely leverage your resources for private gains. – Fairness & Transparency (Di Gangi et al., Forthcoming; Di Gangi et al., 2010)
  • Divergent interests O’Mahony & Bechky, ASQ, 2008
  • (RQ2a) What motivates an individual to contribute privately held, valuable resources to a collective that will make the outcome of his or her efforts free to any that seek it? or does it feel like firms are stealing their candy?
  • (RQ2a) What motivates a firm to contribute to a collective that may produce unanticipated outcomes that could diverge from its interests?or does it feel like “customers” are looting the store?
  • Research Question Three• As communities mature – Go through different phases of governance – Bureaucratic and democratic mechanisms are blended in line with the community’s changing conceptions of authority (O’Mahony & Ferraro, 2007) (RQ3) What are the reciprocal effects of actor behavior (and motivation) and the governance structures used by the community to ensure its sustainability?
  • OverviewIntroduction & Research QuestionsResearch SettingProposed MethodologyExpected ContributionsQuestions & Answers Thank You!
  • The emerging 3D internetO’Driscoll 2009
  • The OpenSim Community Core Developers Missing Core Developers Retired Core Developers Developers/ Testers/ Contributors OpenSim Users
  • The Decision Makers
  • Organizational Agents Dahlander & Wallin (2006)
  • More than just developers…
  • OverviewIntroduction & Research QuestionsResearch SettingProposed MethodologyExpected ContributionsQuestions & Answers Thank You!
  • Proposed Methodology Stage One Stage Two Stage Three RQ Focus: RQ Focus: RQ Focus: RQ 1 RQ 2 & RQ 3 Validation & Refinement Core Methodology: Core Methodology: Core Methodology:Semi-Structured Interviews; Archival; Textual; Network; Semi-Structured Interviews; Questionnaires Event-driven Analysis Case Analysis Approach: Approach: Approach: Snowball technique Web Scraping Identified Interviewees Outcome Focus: Outcome Focus: Outcome Focus:Identification of key actors, Develop understanding of Validate existing findingsroles, and resources within evolutionary structure of with community members the private-collective community as well as and extend based upon community motivations feedback
  • OverviewIntroduction & Research QuestionsResearch SettingProposed MethodologyExpected ContributionsQuestions & Answers Thank You!
  • Additional theory• Contingency-based Perspective for Organizing (Lawrence & Lorsch, 1967) – Nature and form of organizing is determined by the environment in which a phenomenon operates – Absorption and reaction to sudden shocks are resolved through the adaptive governance mechanisms derived from the inter-related web of behaviors and motivations driving resource contributions from the key actors of a private-collective community (Weick, 1969)• Adaptive Governance of Social-ecological Systems (Folke et al., 2005) – “In a social-ecological system with high adaptability, the actors have the capacity to reorganize the system within desired states in response to changing conditions and disturbance events.” – “Crisis, perceived or real, seems to trigger learning and knowledge generation (58) and opens up space for new management trajectories of resources and ecosystems.”
  • Additional theory• Toward a Network Perspective of the Study of Resilience in Social-Ecological Systems (Janssen et al., 2006) – “Nodes and links are not always active. Some are sleeping nodes and links that are activated only in specific situations such as a crisis. Maintaining the capacity to reactivate these nodes and links in times of crisis is an important contribution to the system’s resilience. When nodes or links disappear from a system, it seems that one characteristic of a resilient system is the ability to fill up that space in the network with new nodes and links.” (Walker et al. 1999)
  • RQ 3: Evolution of Community StructurePicture source: Wasko & Teigland 2004
  • RQ 3: Mapping Over Time Change in Number of Participants Part 2000 Part 2001 Part 2002 Part 2003 Part 2004 370 350 330 310 290 People 270 250 230 210 190 170 150 r r r ne h er y ri l ly ay ry st be be be ar c Ju gu Ap ua ob Ju M ar em em em nu M Au ct br Ja pt ov ec O Fe Se N DPicture courtesy of Wasko
  • Intangible Resources Exploratory Analysis Objective: ------------------------------------------------------- Determine role characteristics of main actors and what motivates them to contribute resources over time.Tangible Resources Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation
  • OverviewIntroduction & Research QuestionsResearch SettingProposed MethodologyExpected ContributionsQuestions & Answers Thank You!
  • Research Questions• How do private-collective communities sustain themselves despite challenges that such conflicts produce? – RQ1: Who are key actors in private-collective community, what roles do they fulfill, and what resources do these actors contribute to community to ensure sustainability? – (RQ2a) What motivates an individual to contribute his or her privately held, valuable resources to a collective that will make the outcome of his or her efforts free to any that seek it? – (RQ2b) What motivates a firm to contribute its resources to a collective that may produce unanticipated outcomes that could diverge from its private interests? – (RQ3) What are the reciprocal effects of actor behavior (and motivation) and the governance structures used by the community to ensure its sustainability?