Goal 11Part 1Cold War (1945-1991 - “downfall” of S.U)Post WWII
After WWII 2 major “SUPER POWERS” after WWII United States and Soviet Union U.S. = capitalist / private ownership of business / spread democracy all over the world / reunite Germany *Europe = more productive *(New World Order) S.U. = communism / government ownership of business / rebuild Eastern Europe
U.S Aims vs. Soviet Aims for EuropeU.S.- New World Order (self-determination / rights)- Rebuild Europe to ensure democracy- Reunite Germany (security)Soviet Union- Encourage communism- Control Eastern Europe to balance Western influence (America)- Keep Germany divided (keep it weak) so it would never threaten Soviet Union (scared)
Potsdam Conference (1945) *BIG THREE - United States, Britain, and Soviet Union meet in Berlin Problem: We found out Stalin “LIED” about the “free democratic elections” in Poland! (what conference) = “NO ELECTIONS IN POLAND” Truman’s reaction: ANGRY! (no democracy in Europe)* Potsdam Conference – seen as the OFFICIAL beginning of the Cold War (1945-1991)
Germany after WWII 4 Sections (Fr./ U.S./ S.U. / Br.) (YALTA) Reparations will only be taken from owner’s section Problem: America wanted eastern part of Europe for raw materials Note: Industry skyrocketed during WWII for America! (wanted to continue)
Soviets Tighten Their Grip on EasternEurope***Satellite Nations***Eastern Europeancountries dominatedby the Soviet Unionafter WWII -sets up the“IRON CURTAIN”W =_______________E = _______________
Iron Curtain A phrase that came to standfor the division of Europe after WWII Churchills“IRON CURTAIN SPEECH” - delivered in the U.S.(spoke of the division of Europe!)Solution = “CONTAINMENT”**CONTAINMENT = AmericanForeign Policy throughoutThe Cold War (NO MORE NEUTRAILTY)
Containment & Germany To take ANY measure possible to STOP the spread of Communism!(NO LONGER NEUTRALITY)***Trumans / America’s OFFICIALforeign policy for the Cold WarGermany (@ this point) - Split (Eastern and Western)Eastern = Soviet Union influenceWestern = United States / Fr / Br influence
COLD WAR (1945 – 1991) Started by conflicting aims by the U.S. and Soviet Union in Europe after WWII Cold War – SOVIET UNION v. U.S.(NEVER DIRECTLY CONFRONTED ON BATTLEFIELDS!)Truman Doctrine: March 12, 1947 - assistance to countries threatened by communismFirst steps in “Containment”Go to (1) Turkey and (2) Greece to prevent Communist takeovers
Truman Doctrine Truman asks Congress for $400 Million aid for Turkey and Greece Congress agreed! Result: weakenedthe “threat” ofCommunist takeovers!
Marshall Plan- George Marshall (WAAC)- Providing economic aid to- Europe / Extension towhat was given in the Truman Doctrine- 16 Western European countries were flourishing! (help from U.S.)Result: Eastern Europe / Communist Party started to deflate!!!! (lost support)
BERLIN AIRLIFT Location: East GermanyProblem: COMMUNIST territoryU.S. wants to HELP/resourcesDemocratic Alliances introduced the Deutsche Mark (German currency until Euro is adopted in 2002) Stalin’s reaction: closed roads WHY????? Leads to the BERLIN AIRLIFT U.S / BR. Attempt to “fly” supplies over blocked roads to Berlin 327 days in a row / 277,000 flights / 2.3 tons fop supplies Main Result of Berlin Airlift: Stalin lifted road blockades Main objective: to stop the spread of communism
NATO Alliance / Cold War beginningNorth Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949- Created directly after WWII A defensive military strategy (U.S. / Fr. / Br. / Canada and others…) Goal: support for one another North American military forces in Western Europe against the spread of COMMUNISM Cold War beginning = made U.S. realize isolationism is not the answer!