Beginning of the Cold
War
Introduction 1945 to 1949






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U.S.A. and Russia
were allies during
WWII

Europe was in ruins
after World War II
U....
World War II Alliance with U.S. and
Soviet Union


Alliance contributed to Cold War

1. Ideological differences –

commun...
Category

Soviet Communism

U.S. Democracy

Political
System

One political party, the
Communist Party

Multi-party democr...
Yalta and Potsdam Conferences


Yalta Conference
•
•
•
•
•



Recognized end of war in Europe
Formed United Nations
Divi...
Communists in Greece and Turkey (1947)
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

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Communist rebellions in Greece and
Turkey contributed to the
development o...
Economic Aid





Marshall Plan (1947) – (pays for containment)

U.S. gives money to the reconstruction of western Euro...
Marshall Plan


Can you estimate the value or
importance of the effect the Marshall
Plan would have on the world?
Defend ...
Military Aid










North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) grew
out of European fears of Soviet military
aggres...
NATO


If you were an American, how would
you feel about the U.S. joining
NATO?
Communism


Iron Curtain fell over Eastern Europe
• Closing it off from the West
• For 40 years communication and travel
...
Truman was elected President in
1948; upset victory
Nuclear Weapons




1949 – the Soviet Union exploded its
first atomic bomb. Now they are
competing with the U.S. as a mi...
A Divided Berlin
Berlin Crisis


Soviets want full control over the German
capital (Berlin). U.S. and Great Britain
refuse.
• Berlin was i...
Berlin Crisis


What choice would you have made if
you wanted to escape West Berlin to
East Berlin to see family? Explain...
Berlin Airlift 1948
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

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With the blockade by the Soviet Union, West
Berlin was cutoff from the outside world.
W...
China Falls to Communism
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

Soviets helped China after WWII in 1945
Led by Mao Zedong Chinese communist
def...
Start of the Cold War
Start of the Cold War
Start of the Cold War
Start of the Cold War
Start of the Cold War
Start of the Cold War
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Start of the Cold War

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Start of the Cold War

  1. 1. Beginning of the Cold War
  2. 2. Introduction 1945 to 1949     U.S.A. and Russia were allies during WWII Europe was in ruins after World War II U.S. and Soviet Union filled the power gap that Germany, Italy, and Japan left “Cold War” only in the sense that, because of nuclear weapons, U.S.A and Soviet Union never fought directly but their global competition led to conflicts on every continent.
  3. 3. World War II Alliance with U.S. and Soviet Union  Alliance contributed to Cold War 1. Ideological differences – communist vs. democracy Communism (Soviet Union) – authoritarian government that represses citizens rights and controls the means of production (factories). B.Democracy (U.S.) – the supreme power lies with the citizens who can elect people to represent them. Individual rights and freedoms are protected. Ideological differences A. 2. Different political plans for E. Europe
  4. 4. Category Soviet Communism U.S. Democracy Political System One political party, the Communist Party Multi-party democracy Organizations All labor groups and other associations are run by the Communist Party Unions and other organizations openly negotiate with employers Economic System Industry and farms are owned by the state: central planners determine nation’s economic needs: limited private property: education and health care provided by the state Free enterprise system: private ownership of property: supply and demand determine prices: people meet own needs with little government involvement Religion Religion is discouraged Free exercise of religion Individual Rights Secret police arrest opponents: censorship: no free exercise of speech Freedom of the press and expression
  5. 5. Yalta and Potsdam Conferences  Yalta Conference • • • • •  Recognized end of war in Europe Formed United Nations Divide Germany into 4 zones Free elections in 3 of 4 zones Stalin pledged free elections but didn’t happen Truman met with Stalin six months later at the Potsdam Conference in Germany where serious differences began to emerge between the US and Soviet Union
  6. 6. Communists in Greece and Turkey (1947)    Communist rebellions in Greece and Turkey contributed to the development of the Cold War (U.S. vs. Soviet Union). Domino Theory – fear that if one country fell to communism, neighboring countries would follow Truman Doctrine created –U.S. would intervene in countries to “contain” Communism.
  7. 7. Economic Aid    Marshall Plan (1947) – (pays for containment) U.S. gives money to the reconstruction of western Europe to protect them from the Soviets/Communists taking over their governments. Motives: 1. U.S. did not want Europe becoming an economic drain 2. Wanted strong European markets 3. Strengthen pro-western gov’t 16 European nations agreed $12 billion given to them over the next 3 years. Soviet Union declined to participate.
  8. 8. Marshall Plan  Can you estimate the value or importance of the effect the Marshall Plan would have on the world? Defend your answer.
  9. 9. Military Aid      North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) grew out of European fears of Soviet military aggression. NATO was collective security to defend each member if attacked April 1949 – 10 European nations, U.S. and Canada signed NATO agreement. U.S. would defend Europe if Soviets attack. In response, Soviet Union creates Warsaw Pact in 1955.
  10. 10. NATO  If you were an American, how would you feel about the U.S. joining NATO?
  11. 11. Communism  Iron Curtain fell over Eastern Europe • Closing it off from the West • For 40 years communication and travel between Eastern and Western Europe was limited • Eastern European countries would become “satellites” to the Soviet Union    The Truman Plan said contain it! The Marshall Plan paid for it! NATO enforced it!
  12. 12. Truman was elected President in 1948; upset victory
  13. 13. Nuclear Weapons   1949 – the Soviet Union exploded its first atomic bomb. Now they are competing with the U.S. as a military superpower. U.S. and Soviet Union began to increase their arsenals of nuclear weapons.
  14. 14. A Divided Berlin
  15. 15. Berlin Crisis  Soviets want full control over the German capital (Berlin). U.S. and Great Britain refuse. • Berlin was in the Soviet zone     Allies introduce a new currency to West Berlin. Soviets institute a blockade in June 1948. Supplies blocked to West Berlin. 1948 – U.S. airlifts supplies to W. Berlin. May 1949 – Soviets reopen West Berlin. 1961- Soviets build a wall dividing East and West Berlin.
  16. 16. Berlin Crisis  What choice would you have made if you wanted to escape West Berlin to East Berlin to see family? Explain your strategy.
  17. 17. Berlin Airlift 1948      With the blockade by the Soviet Union, West Berlin was cutoff from the outside world. Western Allies refused to abandon West Berlin They began a massive Airlift to feed and supply the city Stalin (leader of Soviets) lifted the blockade a year later This victory would show that we would not retreat and we would stand up to the Soviet Union
  18. 18. China Falls to Communism        Soviets helped China after WWII in 1945 Led by Mao Zedong Chinese communist defeated the Nationalist Government in 1949 Nationalist fled to the island of Taiwan Mao created the largest communist state in the world Crushing blow to the U.S. Using veto powers, the U.S. prevented the admission of “Red China” into the United Nations Truman pledged to protect the Nationalist in Taiwan from communist aggression

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