Bmc hist unit4.1_cold war


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Bmc hist unit4.1_cold war

  1. 1. COLD WAR: LECTURE 2 How did US try to contain Communism in Europe
  2. 2. AGENDA OF THE LESSON  By the end of the lesson, you would be able to:  Appreciate the:  Truman Doctrine,  The Marshall Plan and  NATO  The benefits of such approaches  The draw backs of containment
  3. 3. THE TRUMAN DOCTRINE, MARCH 1947  Soviet expansion in Europe increasing - US and allies. Truman decided that US must prevent this.  Under the Truman Doctrine USA would:  prevent Communism from spreading  help any country , threatened by Communism  Put his doctrine into action by:  Giving money & weapons to Greece and Turkey which were in danger of being taken over by communists - able to stop the spread of communism with US aid.  Stalin responded - formed the Communist Information Bureau (COMINFORM) – alliance of Communist parties to keep Communist Bloc countries together.
  4. 4. MARSHALL PLAN, JUNE 1947  Another way of containing communism – through offering financial aid to Europe. Plan was named after George Marshall who directed it.  Aims of the plan  help Europe recover economically from WWII  build a prosperous Western Europe – able to resist Communism.
  5. 5. MARSHALL PLAN, JUNE 1947  US Containment Policy:  By making Europe rich and strong again, he would help to create stable, Capitalist, democratic governments in Europe.  US believed that with the Marshall Plan – people in in Europe would become more prosperous and therefore not support Communism.
  6. 6. MARSHALL PLAN, JUNE 1947  Details of the Plan:  16 countries in Western Europe agreed to the Marshall Plan.  Between 1948-1952 these countries – received $13 billion in aid, loans and goods.  Marshall extended aid to East Europeans. Stalin refused – felt that the Plan – was aimed at extending influence there.  Soviets formed an organization that would encourage trade between Communist states in Europe. COMECON did not really improve the economies of these states.  Benefits  Western government still recovering – still better than large skins  Marshall Plan also divided European economies into halves - heightened tensions
  7. 7. NATO (NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION)  Europe was divided into two spheres of influence: The Communist and Capitalist spheres.  US & USSR – forced to seek military allies. US tried to increase their forces in Europe – set up NATO.  NATO – a military alliance formed by US and 11 other countries. Its aims were:  To defend Europe from Soviet attack.  Attack on European allies by Soviets would be considered an attack against all.
  8. 8. NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION  1955 - USSR decided that it would set up Warsaw Pact. All communist countries in Europe (except Yugoslavia) joined the Warsaw Pact.  Benefits of NATO/Warsaw Pact:  NATO and the Warsaw Pact protected the member states but;  Also heightened tensions in Europe during the Cold War.  The US was contented that the Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan and NATO could contain Communism within Europe.
  9. 9. OUTCOMES OF CONTAINMENT  World War II alliance between Britain, US and USSR after 1945 not close – mutually suspicious of each others intentions. USSR viewed US moves in Europe as trying to establish control there.  Containment helped to check Soviet expansion into Western Europe.  However, also increased tensions in Europe as:  both sides tried to gain allies to bolster their defenses against possible attacks from the other.
  10. 10. CRISIS IN EUROPE – BERLIN BLOCKADE  Conflicts over how to administer Germany led to a crisis between Britain, France, US and USSR in 1948.  Germany divided into four zones. Berlin – also divided into four zones.  The four countries agreed to administer Germany together under a joint administration.
  11. 11. MAP OF GERMANY AND BERLIN (1948)
  12. 12. BERLIN BLOCKADE  In 1948: Britain, France and US joined their separate zones in Germany and also created a new currency for Germany.  These actions helped the West German economy to recover – Western powers also encouraged free elections in West Germany.  Stalin was fearful that the West would make Germany strong again and threaten Russia.
  13. 13. BERLIN BLOCKADE – STALIN’S STRATEGY  Stalin planned to seize control over the whole of Berlin – by blocking off road, rail and canal links between East and West Germany – June 1948.  He thought of forcing the allies to leave Berlin by blocking off all supplies.
  14. 14. BERLIN BLOCKADE – US STRATEGY  US felt it was important to support West Berlin because:  Berlin represented the democratic system.  Concerned that if it pulled out of Berlin – Soviets would be emboldened and attack the whole of West Germany.  Yet the US and allies were very cautious – could not start a full scale war by sending in troops to lift the blockade.
  15. 15. BERLIN BLOCKADE – LIFTING THE SIEGE  To avoid war, Pres. Truman ordered a fleet of planes to fly over Berlin and drop food supplies and other supplies into Berlin.  Over 10 months – 2 million tons of supplies were flown into West Berlin. About 2.5 million Berliners were kept warm throughout the winter of 1948.  After 10 months – Stalin realized that Blockade was a failure – West was determined to support West Berlin – called off the blockade in May 1949
  17. 17. CONCLUSION  War time alliance was at an end – US and allies were mutually suspicious of each other.  US and USSR locked in a struggle to gain allies and influence in Europe (later the world)  These tensions did not escalate (become worse) because both sides were fearful of starting another war – Europe still recovering from WWII.  Both sides preferred to use threats and “challenge” each other – but these never amounted to direct military actions.