YALTA (USSR) Fecha: Feb 1945Participantes: Churchill, Roosevelt and Stalin
Yalta• Rendición incondicional de la Alemania Nazi.• Alemania y Berlin se dividió en 4 zonas ocupadas.• Alemania se sometería a la desmilitarización y desnazificación• Reparaciones alemanas pueden ser en parte pagadas con trabajo forzoso.• Polonia reorganizó el gobierno “sobre una amplia base democrática.“ – Churchill propuso elecciones libres en Polonia. Stalin estuvo de acuerdo pero no hizo nada para que suceda.• Ciudadanos de la URSS y Yugoslavia serían repatriados independientemente de su consentimiento.• Roosevelt obtuvo el compromiso de Stalin de participar en las Naciones Unidas. – Stalin pidió que las 16 repúblicas socialistas soviéticas pertenezcan a las Naciones Unidas. Esto fue tomado en consideración pero 14 de dichas repúblicas socialistas soviéticas fueron rechazadas.• Stalin acuerda entrear a luchas contra el Imperio de Japón a los 90 días de la derrota de Alemania (Esto es importante en el lanzamiento de la bomba atómica).• Criminales de guerra nazis fueron perseguidos y llevados ante la justicia.
Iron Curtain –A term used byWinston Churchillto describe theseparating ofThose communistlands of EastEurope from theWest.
POTSDAM (Alemania) Fecha: Jul 1945Participantes: Churchill, Truman and Stalin
Potsdam• In the five months since the Yalta Conference, a number of changes had taken place which would greatly affect the relationships between the leaders.1. The Soviet Union (Communist) was occupying Central and Eastern Europe2. Britain had a new Prime Minister3. America had a new President, and the war was ending4. The US had tested an atomic bomb• By the 26 July, the Potsdam Declaration had been broadcast to Japan, threatening total destruction unless the Imperial Japanese government submitted to unconditional surrender.
Bolshevik Revolution (1917)• Established rule by the communist party• Leader: Vladimir Lenin• Russia renamed the territory it controlled the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR)
The U.S.S.R. stands for the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. “Soviet Union.”1. Russia2. Ukraine3. Belarus4. Lithuania5. Latvia6. Estonia7. Armenia8. Moldova9. Georgia11. Kazakh S.S.R.12. Azerbaijani S.S.R.13. Kirghiz S.S.R.14. Tajik S.S.R.15. Turkmen S.S.R
Joseph Stalin• Lenin died in 1924• Russian communist party was taken over by Josef Stalin• “Uncle Joe,” as he was called in the U.S. as our ally during World War II,• Remained the leader of the USSR until his death in 1953.
What was the Cold War?• Rivalry between the communist USSR (and its allies) and the democratic, capitalist USA (and its allies) between 1945 and 1991• Both sides contributed to wars in other countries to gain allies.• The main danger from conflicts during the Cold War was nuclear weapons!!!
China• Became a communist nation in 1949, just after WWII.• Were not allies long since the leaders had ideological differences about communism• China = agriculture• Russia = industry• By 1960 the two nations were no longer allies.
Iron Curtain• Eastern communist vs. Western capitalist• “From Stettin in the Baltic to Trieste in the Adriatic, an iron curtain has descended across the continent”—Winston Churchill, 1946
NATO (1949) North Atlantic Treaty Organization. NOT COMMUNIST 16 original members were:• Belgium • Norway• Canada • Portugal• Denmark • United Kingdom• France • United States• Iceland • Greece (1952)• Italy • Turkey (1955)• Luxembourg • West Germany (1955)• Netherlands • Spain (1982)
Warsaw Pact (1955)Warsaw was the communist capital of Poland COMMUNIST• USSR • Czechoslovakia• East Germany • Bulgaria• Poland • Hungary• Romania • Albania
Brezhnev Doctrine• Enacted by Leniod Brezhnev – head of the state (1964-1982)• If anyone threatened the communist party’s monopoly in Soviet satellite nations, the USSR would interfere
Brinkmanship• Each side would push the other side to the “brink” of war, in order to show that their threats were serious.• Goal - get the enemy to back down, making your side seem more powerful, without actually going to war.
“HOT” WARS IN THE “COLD WAR”• Containment – try to stop the spread of communism• USSR or China supported nations during civil wars in hopes of spreading communism – military aid, training and equipment• United States sided with the opposition to the communist party to prevent the spread of communism – military aid, training and equipment
Marshall Plan• Provided nations in Europe financial support from the US• Led to better economies• Ensured that the Soviets would be contained
EXAMPLES:1. Greece and Turkey and the Truman Doctrine, 19472. Berlin Airlift 1948-1949 (10 months)3. Korean War, 1950-1953.4. Space Race in the 1950s and 1960s5. Hungarian Revolution 19576. Domino Theory, 1957 (Eisenhower Doctrine)7. Berlin Wall Built, August 13, 1961.8. Cuba and the Bay of Pigs, April 17, 1961.9. Cuban Missile Crisis, October 16-28, 1962.10. Vietnam War 1965-1975.11. Ethiopia (communist) vs. Somalia, 197712. Civil Wars in Africa: Zimbabwe, Angola, and Mozambique.13. Red Scare14. Arms Race
End of the Cold War• 1985 - Mikhail Gorbachev = Soviet Premier (Communist Party Secretary, Head of State).• He began a program with two major changes: – Glasnost: political openness (freedom of speech and of the press) – Perestroika: economic restructuring (citizens can own their own business)• Caused: – greater freedom of speech- publications and individuals could say what they thought without fear of arrest – political prisoners were released, since their “crimes” of speaking against the government were no longer illegal – inflation skyrocketed and black markets flourished – multi-party elections began• 1989 Gorbachev repudiated the Brezhnev Doctrine.• 1989 = “Year of Miracles.”
Hungary• Parliament voted to allow freedom of speech, hold free elections, and take down the barbed-wire fence with Austria (the iron curtain coming down!)• Thousands of East Germans flee through the newly- opened borders into the West
Poland • Solidarity swept the free multi-party elections (winning 99 seats out of 100) and • Polish communist party is ousted.
East Germany• Demonstrations at the Berlin Wall grow to half a million people, shouting “We want out! We’re staying here!”• Border guards open the gates• East Germans are free to cross for the first time in 28 years —huge celebrations ensue.• With open borders between East and West, there is no need for the Berlin Wall.
“Collapse of the Soviet Union”• Communist Party in the Soviet Union lost a majority in the elections in June 1991.• Boris Yeltsin – elected as Head of State in the newly renamed “Russian Soviet Federated Soviet Republic.”• September 6: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania declared independence.• December 1: Ukraine declared independence• By December 8, 1991 all 15 republics of the “former Soviet Union” were independent.• On December 26, 1991 the USSR was officially dissolved and…THE COLD WAR WAS OVER!