If you don’t learn anything else from this chapter, LEARN THIS CHART! Nucleic Acids Nucleotides Proteins Amino acids Lipids Glycerol + fatty acids Carbohydrates (oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, disaccharides.) Monosaccharides – simple sugars Polymers (Macromolecules) Monomers
Complete 1-8 (don’t write questions) and 1-5 (SSR write these questions) on page 80.
Made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.
Ratio of 1:2:1
Primary source of energy for most all living things.
Also used for support and protection in plants and some animals.
means “simple sugar” or “one sugar”.
Examples of monosaccharides include glucose, fructose (fruit sugar), and galactose (milk sugar).
poly means many; therefore polysaccharide means many sugars.
simple sugars linked by covalent bonds.
Examples are starch (plants) and glycogen (animal starch used to store extra sugar).
COMPLETE 1-10 ON PAGE 82.
Lipids include fats, waxes, phospholipids and steroids.
Make up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
NOT water soluble.
Used for long term energy storage
Waxes are used as coverings on leaves, skin or fur.
Phospholipids are important parts of cell membranes.
Steroids are important chemical messengers
Cholesterol is a steroid lipid used to make hormones your body needs.
made up of a glycerol bonded to 3 fatty acid molecules.
fats can be classified as saturated or unsaturated.
Every carbon atom in the fatty acid chain has a single bond with another carbon atom
Solid at room temperature
Usually comes from animals
Includes butter, shortening, and lard
If they have one double bond, it is called monounsaturated; polyunsaturated means more than one double bond.
Usually a liquid at room temperature
Oils are examples
Fats are important for life
Two important lipids include omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids.
Found in cold water fish, nuts, and seeds.
Instead of 3 fatty acids, it has 2. One fatty acid has been replaced by a phosphate group.
The phosphate group is hydrophilic (water loving) and the fatty acid tails are hydrophobic (water hating).
COMPLETE PAGE 84 1-5 WRITE QUESTIONS.
Functions of proteins
structure component of skeletal muscles, skin, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, horns, bone, hair, and feathers.
Detect chemical signals so that cells can respond to stimuli
important in movement of muscles and cells
antibodies to protect against disease
function as enzymes
Help transport substances through the body.
Stores elements like iron
Made up of amino acids.
They not only contain carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen but Nitrogen as well.
Make up of:
The above is the same for every amino acid except for the R group.
The R group changes to give different amino acids.
Primary level of Protein Structure – sequence of amino acids.
Secondary level of Protein Structure – Shape of Protein – coil or sheet.
Third level of Protein structure – 3-D shape of protein structure.
Fourth Level of Protein structure – How 1 protein interacts with another protein.
COMPLETE PAGE 85 1-4.
contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus
Make up of nucleotides
3 parts of a nucleotide
sugar (DNA-Deoxyribose or RNA – Ribose)
one of 4 nitrogen bases.
DNA stores genetic information and RNA caries the instructions from DNA to the ribosomes (protein making organelles)
Primary differences between DNA and RNA
In the cell Inside the nucleus Single stranded Double stranded called a “double helix” Nitrogen bases are A, C, G, but Uracil (U) instead of thymine (T) Nitrogen bases are adenine (A), cytosine (C),Guanine (G), and thymine (T) RNA DNA
COMPLETE PAGE 86 1-5.
Many chemical reactions in cells normally would occur too slowly to be practical.
In order to speed up chemical reactions the body uses ENZYMES.
A catalyst is anything that speeds up a chemical reaction without being affected by the reaction. In other words the enzyme is not changed by the reaction.
Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts.
Some catalyst are not organic, some are inorganic such as magnesium oxide.
Enzyme are very specific and will work only on certain substances.
The specific substance an enzyme will work on is called a substrate.
Each enzyme has an active site (where the substrate will attach) that fits like a puzzle piece with the substrate. This is called the “lock and key model”
If the substrate doesn’t fit the active site, the enzyme will not work on it.
When the enzyme bonds with the substrate, it forms the enzyme-substrate complex.
At the end of the reaction, the products are released and the enzyme (which has not been changed) can be used again and again.
Factors that affect enzyme activity.
concentration – the higher the concentration of a substrate, the greater chance that it fill it into the active site and the rate of reaction will increase.
Temperature – most body enzymes work around 37 degrees (your body temp) if the temp gets higher, the enzyme changes shape (denatures) and the active site will no longer match the substrate and the reaction slows or stops.
pH – Most enzymes work around a certain pH. If the pH changes, the enzyme will change shape (denature) and the active site won’t match the substrate and the reaction rate slows or stops.