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  • Photo Credit: © John Conrad/CORBIS
  • When small molecules called monomers join together, they form polymers, or large molecules.
  • Nucleic acids store and transmit genetic information. The monomers that make up a nucleic acid are nucleotides. Each nucleotide has a 5-carbon sugar, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base.
  • Amino acids are the monomers of proteins. All amino acids have an amino group at one end and a carboxyl group at the other end.
  • Proteins help to carry out chemical reactions, transport small molecules in and out of cells, and fight diseases. Proteins are made up of chains of amino acids folded into complex structures.
  • Chapter2.3

    1. 1. 2–3 Carbon Compounds Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    2. 2. The Chemistry of Carbon <ul><li>The Chemistry of Carbon </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon atoms have four valence electrons that can join with the electrons from other atoms to form strong covalent bonds. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A carbon atom can bond to other carbon atoms, giving it the ability to form chains that are almost unlimited in length. </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    3. 3. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Methane Acetylene Butadiene Benzene Isooctane Macromolecules
    4. 4. Macromolecules <ul><li>Macromolecules </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Macromolecules are formed by a process known as polymerization. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The smaller units, or monomers , join together to form polymers . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This polymerization reaction produces water </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    5. 5. Macromolecules <ul><li>Monomers in a polymer may be identical, or the monomers may be different. </li></ul>Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    6. 6. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Carbon Compounds include that consist of which contain elements that consist of that consist of that consist of which contain elements which contain elements which contain elements Macromolecules Carbohydrates Lipids Nucleic acids Proteins Monosaccharides Fats and oils Nucleotides Amino Acids Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Carbon,hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus Carbon, hydrogen,oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur
    7. 7. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbohydrates are compounds made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms, usually in a ratio of 1 : 2 : 1. </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    8. 8. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Function of Carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Living things use carbohydrates as their main source of energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plants and some animals also use carbohydrates for structural purposes. </li></ul></ul>Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    9. 9. <ul><li>Monosaccharides serve as a major fuel for cells and as raw material for building molecules </li></ul>Carbohydrates Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    10. 10. Carbohydrates <ul><ul><li>The breakdown of monosaccharides, such as glucose, supplies immediate energy for all cell activities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Living things combine monosaccharides into complex carbohydrates to store energy . </li></ul></ul>Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    11. 11. Carbohydrates <ul><ul><li>Monosaccharides or single sugars include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>glucose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>galactose (a component of milk) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fructose (found in many fruits) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaccharides: Two monosaccharides joined together. Examples are: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lactose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sucrose </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    12. 12. Some Sweet Humor Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    13. 13. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Glucose Carbohydrates
    14. 14. Polysaccharides <ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides . The large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples are </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>starch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>glycogen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cellulose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chitin </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    15. 15. Storage Polysaccharides <ul><li>Starch , a storage polysaccharide of plants, consists entirely of glucose monomers </li></ul>Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    16. 16. <ul><li>Glycogen is a storage polysaccharide in animals </li></ul><ul><li>Humans and other vertebrates store glycogen mainly in liver and muscle cells </li></ul>Storage Polysaccharides Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    17. 17. <ul><li>Cellulose is a major component of the tough wall of plant cells </li></ul><ul><li>Like starch, cellulose (fiber) is a polymer of glucose </li></ul>Structural Polysaccharides Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    18. 18. Structural Polysaccharides Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Chitin is a major component of the tough exoskeletons found in arthropods (insects, spiders, crayfish etc..)
    19. 19. Lipids <ul><li>Lipids </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids are made mostly from carbon and hydrogen atoms. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids are generally not soluble in water. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The common categories of lipids are: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fats & oils </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>waxes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>steroids </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    20. 20. Lipids <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lipids can be used to store energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some lipids are important parts of biological membranes and waterproof coverings. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Insulation and protection. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building block for hormones. </li></ul></ul>Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    21. 21. LE 5-11b Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Fat molecule (triglyceride) Lipids Glycerol Fatty Acid Chain
    22. 22. <ul><li>Fats made from saturated fatty acids are called saturated fats. The fatty acid chain has no double bonds between carbons. </li></ul><ul><li>Most animal fats are saturated. </li></ul><ul><li>Saturated fats are solid at room temperature. </li></ul>Saturated Fats Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Saturated fat and fatty acid.
    23. 23. <ul><li>Fats made from unsaturated fatty acids are called unsaturated fats. Unsaturated fats have one or more double bonds in the fatty acid chain. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant fats and fish fats are usually unsaturated. </li></ul><ul><li>Plant fats and fish fats are liquid at room temperature and are called oils. </li></ul>Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Unsaturated Fats
    24. 24. LE 5-12b Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Unsaturated fat and fatty acid. Oleic acid cis double bond causes bending Unsaturated Fats
    25. 25. Trans Fats Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    26. 26. Lipids Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Before After
    27. 27. Lipids Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall                                                
    28. 28. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Nucleic Acids </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleic acids are polymers assembled from individual monomers known as nucleotides . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleotides consist of three parts: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a 5-carbon sugar </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a phosphate group </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>a nitrogenous base </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    29. 29. Nucleic Acids Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    30. 30. <ul><li>Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, or genetic, information. </li></ul><ul><li>There are two kinds of nucleic acids, ribonucleic acid (RNA) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). </li></ul>Nucleic Acids Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    31. 31. Proteins <ul><li>Proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins are macromolecules that contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Proteins are polymers of molecules called amino acids . </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    32. 32. Proteins <ul><ul><li>Amino acids are compounds with an amino group (-NH 2 ) on one end and a carboxyl group (-COOH) on the other end. </li></ul></ul>Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    33. 33. Proteins <ul><ul><li>The portion of each amino acid that is different is a side chain called an R-group. </li></ul></ul>Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    34. 34. Proteins <ul><li>FUNCTIONS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some proteins control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes. e.g. enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some proteins are used to form bones and muscles. e.g. tendon, ligament, collagen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other proteins transport substances into or out of cells or help to fight disease. e.g. antibodies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some proteins are chemical messengers. e.g. insulin </li></ul></ul>Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    35. 35. Proteins <ul><ul><li>Proteins can have up to four levels of organization: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>PRIMARY: Amino acids have a specific protein chain. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SECONDARY: The amino acids within a chain can be twisted or folded. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TERTIARY: The chain itself is folded. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>QUARTENARY: If a protein has more than one chain, each chain has a specific arrangement in space. </li></ul></ul></ul>Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall
    36. 36. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Proteins
    37. 37. Proteins <ul><ul><li>The instructions for arranging amino acids into many different proteins are stored in DNA. </li></ul></ul>Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Amino Acids Protein Molecule
    38. 38. <ul><li>NutraSweet </li></ul><ul><li>Saccaharin </li></ul><ul><li>Sucrolose </li></ul><ul><li>Truvia(stevia) </li></ul><ul><li>Olestra </li></ul><ul><li>Simplesse </li></ul>Impostors Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall