Green Book 4


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Green Book 4

  1. 1. Section 4 Mr. McCammon Biology I and SSR
  2. 2. Section 4.1 <ul><li>Organic Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>A. Compounds created by living organisms are called organic compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>B. Study of organic compounds is the branch of chemistry called organic chemistry. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Section 4.1 <ul><li>Organic Chemistry (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>C. Carbon is very important </li></ul><ul><li>1. Has 4 outer shell electrons to bond – It can form 4 bonds. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Can covalently bond with itself as well as hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and phosphorus. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Section 4.1 <ul><li>Organic Chemistry (Con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>D. Can form rings and can combine into thousands of different combinations. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Section 4.1 <ul><li>Organic Chemistry (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing Diagrams </li></ul><ul><li> H </li></ul><ul><li> | </li></ul><ul><li>H-C-H </li></ul><ul><li> | </li></ul><ul><li> H </li></ul>Hydrogen can form 1 bond. Oxygen can form 2 bonds Nitrogen can form 3 bonds. Carbon can form 4 bonds.
  6. 6. Section 4.1 <ul><li>Organic Chemistry (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>Draw the following structural formulas. </li></ul><ul><li>C 2 H 4 </li></ul><ul><li>C 6 H 12 O 6 </li></ul><ul><li>C 2 H 2 </li></ul><ul><li>H 2 O </li></ul>
  7. 7. Section 4.1 <ul><li>Organic Chemistry (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>E. When smaller molecules joint to form larger molecules. </li></ul><ul><li>F. Momomers (small molecules) join to form Polymers (large molecules) it is called polymerization. </li></ul><ul><li>G. Macromolecules are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Section 4.1 <ul><li>Organic Chemistry (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>H. Functional Groups </li></ul><ul><li>1. -OH – Hydroxyl group - Alcohols </li></ul><ul><li>2. -COOH – Carboxyl group – carboxylic acids </li></ul><ul><li>3. -NH 3 – Amine group – Amino acids </li></ul>
  9. 9. Section 4.1 <ul><li>Organic Chemistry (con’t) </li></ul><ul><li>I. Examples </li></ul><ul><li>1. Organics – carbs, proteins, lipids, fats, enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>2. Non-Organics – Salts, minerals, water, ionic compounds, anything without carbon </li></ul>
  10. 10. If you don’t learn anything else from this chapter, LEARN THIS CHART! Nucleic Acids Nucleotides Proteins Amino acids Lipids Glycerol + fatty acids Carbohydrates (oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, disaccharides.) Monosaccharides – simple sugars Polymers (Macromolecules) Monomers
  11. 11. <ul><li>Complete 1-8 (don’t write questions) and 1-5 (SSR write these questions) on page 80. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. </li></ul><ul><li>Ratio of 1:2:1 </li></ul><ul><li>Primary source of energy for most all living things. </li></ul><ul><li>Also used for support and protection in plants and some animals. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Carbohydrates <ul><li>Monosaccharide </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>means “simple sugar” or “one sugar”. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples of monosaccharides include glucose, fructose (fruit sugar), and galactose (milk sugar). </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Polysaccharides </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>poly means many; therefore polysaccharide means many sugars. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>simple sugars linked by covalent bonds. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Examples are starch (plants) and glycogen (animal starch used to store extra sugar). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Carbohydrates <ul><li>COMPLETE 1-10 ON PAGE 82. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Lipids <ul><li>Lipids include fats, waxes, phospholipids and steroids. </li></ul><ul><li>Make up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>NOT water soluble. </li></ul><ul><li>Used for long term energy storage </li></ul><ul><li>Waxes are used as coverings on leaves, skin or fur. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Lipids <ul><li>Phospholipids are important parts of cell membranes. </li></ul><ul><li>Steroids are important chemical messengers </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol is a steroid lipid used to make hormones your body needs. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Lipids <ul><li>Fats </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>made up of a glycerol bonded to 3 fatty acid molecules. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>fats can be classified as saturated or unsaturated. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Saturated fats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Every carbon atom in the fatty acid chain has a single bond with another carbon atom </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Solid at room temperature </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually comes from animals </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Includes butter, shortening, and lard </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Lipids <ul><li>Fats </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unsaturated fats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If they have one double bond, it is called monounsaturated; polyunsaturated means more than one double bond. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Usually a liquid at room temperature </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oils are examples </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Lipids <ul><li>Fats are important for life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two important lipids include omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in cold water fish, nuts, and seeds. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Phospholipids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Instead of 3 fatty acids, it has 2. One fatty acid has been replaced by a phosphate group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The phosphate group is hydrophilic (water loving) and the fatty acid tails are hydrophobic (water hating). </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Lipids <ul><li>COMPLETE PAGE 84 1-5 WRITE QUESTIONS. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Proteins <ul><li>Functions of proteins </li></ul><ul><ul><li>structure component of skeletal muscles, skin, cartilage, tendons, ligaments, horns, bone, hair, and feathers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detect chemical signals so that cells can respond to stimuli </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>important in movement of muscles and cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>antibodies to protect against disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>function as enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help transport substances through the body. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores elements like iron </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Proteins <ul><li>Made up of amino acids. </li></ul><ul><li>Alpha carbon </li></ul><ul><li>They not only contain carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen but Nitrogen as well. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Make up of: </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Proteins <ul><ul><li>The above is the same for every amino acid except for the R group. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The R group changes to give different amino acids. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary level of Protein Structure – sequence of amino acids. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary level of Protein Structure – Shape of Protein – coil or sheet. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Third level of Protein structure – 3-D shape of protein structure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fourth Level of Protein structure – How 1 protein interacts with another protein. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Proteins <ul><li>COMPLETE PAGE 85 1-4. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus </li></ul><ul><li>Make up of nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>3 parts of a nucleotide </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>sugar (DNA-Deoxyribose or RNA – Ribose) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phosphate group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>one of 4 nitrogen bases. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>DNA stores genetic information and RNA caries the instructions from DNA to the ribosomes (protein making organelles) </li></ul>
  26. 26. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>Primary differences between DNA and RNA </li></ul>In the cell Inside the nucleus Single stranded Double stranded called a “double helix” Nitrogen bases are A, C, G, but Uracil (U) instead of thymine (T) Nitrogen bases are adenine (A), cytosine (C),Guanine (G), and thymine (T) RNA DNA
  27. 27. Nucleic Acids <ul><li>COMPLETE PAGE 86 1-5. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Enzymes <ul><li>Many chemical reactions in cells normally would occur too slowly to be practical. </li></ul><ul><li>In order to speed up chemical reactions the body uses ENZYMES. </li></ul><ul><li>A catalyst is anything that speeds up a chemical reaction without being affected by the reaction. In other words the enzyme is not changed by the reaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymes are proteins that act as biological catalysts. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Enzymes <ul><li>Some catalyst are not organic, some are inorganic such as magnesium oxide. </li></ul><ul><li>Enzyme are very specific and will work only on certain substances. </li></ul><ul><li>The specific substance an enzyme will work on is called a substrate. </li></ul><ul><li>Each enzyme has an active site (where the substrate will attach) that fits like a puzzle piece with the substrate. This is called the “lock and key model” </li></ul>
  30. 30. Enzymes <ul><li>If the substrate doesn’t fit the active site, the enzyme will not work on it. </li></ul><ul><li>When the enzyme bonds with the substrate, it forms the enzyme-substrate complex. </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of the reaction, the products are released and the enzyme (which has not been changed) can be used again and again. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Enzymes <ul><li>Factors that affect enzyme activity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>concentration – the higher the concentration of a substrate, the greater chance that it fill it into the active site and the rate of reaction will increase. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Temperature – most body enzymes work around 37 degrees (your body temp) if the temp gets higher, the enzyme changes shape (denatures) and the active site will no longer match the substrate and the reaction slows or stops. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pH – Most enzymes work around a certain pH. If the pH changes, the enzyme will change shape (denature) and the active site won’t match the substrate and the reaction rate slows or stops. </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Enzymes
  33. 33. Enzymes <ul><li>COMPLETE PAGE 87-88 1-6. </li></ul><ul><li>COMPLETE PAGE 88 1-8. </li></ul>