Organic compounds

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Organic compounds

  1. 1. Organic molecules (Biological molecules) Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids
  2. 2. Living organisms on Earth are made of primarily water and molecules containing carbon
  3. 3. Vocab word Definition 1. Organic Molecules that contain carbon. molecules All life on Earth is organic – we all contain carbon Picture
  4. 4. What’s so special about Carbon? Carbon is a versatile atom – It has four electrons in an outer shell that holds eight – Carbon can share its electrons with other atoms to form up to four covalent bonds
  5. 5. What’s so special about Carbon? Carbon can use its bonds to – Attach to other carbons – Form an endless diversity of carbon skeletons
  6. 6. Four Basic Types of Organic Molecule 1. carbohydrates (sugars and starches) 2. lipids (fats) 3. Proteins (enzymes and antibodies) 4. nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). – Because they are large, these molecules are called macromolecules.
  7. 7. Carbohydrate: Contains: 2. Carbohydrates Carbon (sugars and Hydrogen starches – Oxygen “saccharides” ) Functions: •used for energy •Stores energy •Forms body structures Examples: breads, pastas, starches, fruit
  8. 8. There are three types of carbohydrates! 1. Monosaccharides 2. Disaccharides 3. Polysaccharides
  9. 9. 3 types of Carbohydrates 3. Monosaccharides Simple sugars - glucose (soft drinks) - fructose (fruit) One strand of carbon and hydrogen
  10. 10. 3 types of Carbohydrates 4. Disaccharides Two monosaccharides linked together Di – means 2 Sucrose – table sugar Most common type of carbohydrate
  11. 11. 3 types of Carbohydrates 5. Polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates) Many saccharides linked together Very big Starches and cellulose (plant sugars) wood
  12. 12. Lipids! 6. Lipids - fats Contains: Carbon Hydrogen oxygen Functions: • Stores energy (more energy than carbohydrates) • Forms cell membranes • Carries messages (nerves) Examples: fats and oils
  13. 13. Common types of lipids: 7. Phospholipids the main component of cell membranes
  14. 14. Common types of lipids: 8. Steroids hydrocarbons with the carbon atoms arranged in a set of 4 linked rings. Examples: cholesterol, steroid hormones, waxes
  15. 15. Proteins: 9. Proteins Contains: Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen and sulfur Functions: •Helps cells keep their shape •Makes up muscles •speeds up chemical reactions •Carries messages and materials Examples: enzymes, antibodies, amino acids
  16. 16. Types of proteins: subunits of proteins, 10. Amino Acids There are 20 different kinds of amino acids in proteins.
  17. 17. Proteins: 11. Enzymes all metabolic transformations, building up, rearranging, and breaking down of organic compounds, are done by enzymes, which are proteins.
  18. 18. Nucleic Acids: 12. Nucleic Acids Contains: Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Phosphorus and nitrogen Functions: •Contains instructions for proteins •Passes instructions from parent to offspring •Helps make proteins Examples: DNA RNA
  19. 19. Two types of nucleic Acids: 13. DNA Contains: four bases adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine. The order of these bases in a chain of DNA determines the genetic information. DNA consists of 2 complementary chains twisted into a double helix and held together by hydrogen bonds.
  20. 20. Two types of nucleic Acids: 14. RNA Contains: RNA consists of a single chain that also uses 4 bases: however, the thymine in DNA is replaced by uracil in RNA. RNA is much less stable than DNA, but it can act as an enzyme to promote chemical reactions in some situations.
  21. 21. Exit slip 1. List and give and example of the four types of organic molecules. 2. What is carbon and why is it important for life on Earth?

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