Biology carbon compounds

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Biology carbon compounds

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Biology carbon compounds

  1. 1. Section 2–3 Carbon Compounds This section explains how the element carbon able to form millions of carbon, or organic, compounds. It describes the four groups of organic compounds found in living things.
  2. 2. Life’s Backbone <ul><li>Most of the compounds that make up living things contain carbon. In fact, carbon makes up the basic structure, or “backbone,” of these compounds. Each atom of carbon has four electrons in its outer energy level, which makes it possible for each carbon atom to form four bonds with other atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>As a result, carbon atoms can form long chains. A huge number of different carbon compounds exist. Each compound has a different structure. For example, carbon chains can be straight or branching. Also, other kinds of atoms can be attached to the carbon chain. </li></ul>Section 2-3
  3. 3. What are organic compounds? <ul><li>organic compounds are compounds that contain carbon. </li></ul><ul><li>Inorganic compounds are compounds that do not contain carbon ex. Water </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbon is a compound that contains only the elements carbon and hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. methane </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Chemistry of Carbon
  5. 5. How many valence electrons does each carbon atom have? <ul><li>Each carbon atom has four electrons. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What gives carbon the ability to form chains that are almost unlimited in length? <ul><li>A carbon atom can bond to other carbon atoms. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Many of the molecules in living cells are so large that they are known as <ul><li>Macromolecules </li></ul>What is the process called by which macromolecules are formed? Polymerization When monomers join together, what do they form? Polymers
  8. 8. <ul><li>carbohydrates (sugars and starches), </li></ul><ul><li>lipids (wax,fats,oil) </li></ul><ul><li>Proteins , (ex. Alanine, glycine …) </li></ul><ul><li>nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). </li></ul><ul><li>These molecules are usually in the form of polymers, long chains of similar subunits. Because they are large, these molecules are called macromolecules . The subunits are called monomers. </li></ul><ul><li>The cell also contains water, inorganic salts and ions, and other small organic molecules. </li></ul>WHAT ARE FOUR GROUPS OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FOUND IN LIVING THINGS?
  9. 9. <ul><li>Carbohydrates are made of Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>atoms ex. Sugars and starches </li></ul><ul><li>Function: main source of energy. </li></ul>Monosaccharides are Single sugar molecules. Ex. Galactose, glucose and fructose Polysaccharides are large macromolecules formed from monosaccharides Ex. Glycogen Carbohydrates
  10. 10. Nucleic acids <ul><li>Nucleic acids contain hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, </li></ul><ul><li>carbon, and phosphorus atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Function: Nucleic acids store and transmit hereditary, </li></ul><ul><li>or genetic, information. </li></ul><ul><li>The two types of nucleic acids: </li></ul><ul><li>Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) </li></ul><ul><li>Ribonucleic acid (RNA) </li></ul>
  11. 11. Nucleotide Nucleotides are molecules that, when joined together, make up the structural units of RNA and DNA. The nucleotide consists of a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a 5-carbon sugar.
  12. 12. PROTEINS <ul><li>proteins contain nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. </li></ul><ul><li>Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. </li></ul>
  13. 13. What are four roles that proteins play in living things? <ul><li>Some control the rate of reactions and regulate cell processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Some are used to form bones and muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Some transport substances into or out of cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Some help to fight diseases. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Lipids <ul><li>lipids are mostly made of carbon and hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>The three common categories of lipids are fat, oils and wax </li></ul>
  15. 15. Carbon Compounds include that consist of which contain that consist of make up the structural units of RNA and DNA. building blocks of proteins which contain which contain which contain Section 2-3 Concept Map Functions functions functions functions Carbohydrates Lipids Nucleic acids Proteins Sugars and starches Fats and oils Nucleotides Amino Acids Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen Carbon,hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus Carbon, hydrogen,oxygen, nitrogen,
  16. 19. Class work: The Chemistry of Carbon 1. How many valence electrons does each carbon atom have? Each carbon atom has fourlectrons. 2. What gives carbon the ability to form chains that are almost unlimited in length? A carbon atom can bond to other carbon atoms. Macromolecules 3. Many of the molecules in living cells are so large that they are known as __________ 4. What is the process called by which macromolecules are formed?____________ Polymerization 5. When monomers join together, what do they form? ___________ Polymers 6. What are four groups of organic compounds found in living things? a. b. c. d. Carbohydrates 7. What atoms make up carbohydrates? Carbon, 8. What are polysaccharides?
  17. 20. Methane Acetylene Butadiene Benzene Isooctane Section 2-3 Figure 2-11 Carbon Compounds
  18. 21. Starch Glucose Section 2-3 Figure 2-13 A Starch carbohydrate
  19. 22. General structure Alanine Serine Section 2-3 Figure 2-16 Amino Acids Amino group Carboxyl group Poteins
  20. 23. <ul><li>1. On a sheet of paper, make a list of at least ten things that contain carbon. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Working with a partner, review your list. If you think some things on your list contain only carbon, write “only carbon” next to them. </li></ul><ul><li>3. If you know other elements that are in any items on your list, write those elements next to them. </li></ul>Section 2-3 http://users.rcn.com/jkimball.ma.ultranet/BiologyPages/C/Carbohydrates.html

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