Asynchronous Audio Feedback

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  • 1.  
  • 2. First – A Quick Overview of the Community of Inquiry Framework
  • 3.  
  • 4. Cognitive Presence
    • The exploration, construction, resolution and confirmation of understanding through
    • collaboration and reflection in a community of inquiry.
    • (Garrison, 2007)
  • 5. Social Presence
    • The degree to which participants in computer mediated communication feel socially and emotionally connected
    • The ability of participants in a community of inquiry to project themselves socially and emotionally -- as ‘real’ people.
    • (Richardson & Swan, 2003)
  • 6. Teaching Presence
    • The design, facilitation and direction of cognitive and social processes for the purpose of realizing personally meaningful and educationally worthwhile learning outcomes.
    • Instructional Design and Organization
    • Facilitation of Discourse
    • Direct Instruction
  • 7. Challenges in Online Learning
    • Asynchronous courses do not provide instructors with as many paralinguistic cues as face to face environments
    • Communicating in text can be difficult and frustrating as we are unsure of whether or not our intent is conveyed
    • Instructor immediacy behaviors (use of personal examples, humor, and openness toward and encouragement of student ideas and discussion) in online courses were a significant predictor of student learning (Arbaugh, 2006)
  • 8. Text will work, HOWEVER…
    • Various surveys of online learners indicate that they prefer multimedia over text only presentations of content
    • This made us question whether applying media other than text to online interactions would be of benefit in projecting teaching presence
  • 9. Asynchronous Audio Feedback
    • Audio commenting tool in Adobe Acrobat Pro v.7 was used to provide feedback on student assignments – 2005.
    • Version 8 is currently available and has the same capability.
  • 10.  
  • 11.  
  • 12. The Study and It’s Context
  • 13. What We Wanted to Know
    • RQ 1: Between audio and text-based student feedback in ALN, which do students believe is a more effective means of interaction with the instructor?
    • RQ 2: To what degree do students believe audio feedback is an effective replacement of instructor/student interaction that typically occurs in traditional face to face classes?
  • 14. What We Wanted to Know
    • RQ 3: How does the use of audio feedback impact the sense of community in ALN?
    • RQ 4: In what manner is perceived learning impacted by the use of audio feedback?
    • RQ 5: What relationship exists between the use of audio feedback and student satisfaction?
  • 15. What We Looked At
    • Alternating text-based (6) and audio (5) feedback on assignments in online course
      • C&I 687: Advanced Teaching Strategies
    • Single item on course survey -preference for audio versus text feedback
    • Semi-structured post-course interviews with 27 of 34 enrolled students
    • Document analysis of final project
      • Relation between feedback modality and level (Bloom’s) of content application
  • 16. Unsolicited Feedback
    • Emails started coming in immediately after the first use of audio commenting
      • Over 40% of students spontaneously emailed us about audio commenting– 100% expressing satisfaction with the technique
  • 17. Unsolicited Feedback - Example “ We’ve had written comments twice and verbal comments twice now. Let me guess – this is someone’s research project right? Let me just save you some time. The verbal feedback is much, much, much better than the written.”
  • 18. End of Course Survey Data
    • 26 of 31 students preferred audio to text
    • 4 students indicated no difference
    • 1 student indicated N/A (due to technical problems – defective sound card)
  • 19. Semi-structured Interviews
    • Four themes emerged from transcript analysis
    • THEME 1 – Ability to understand nuance (70% of students)
            • Students indicated that they were better able to understand instructor’s intent
          • Humor, encouragement and emphasis were all much more clear
  • 20. Semi-structured Interviews
    • Four themes emerged from transcript analysis
    • THEME 2 – Feelings of increased involvement (56% of students)
      • Students felt less isolated and were more motivated to participate
  • 21. Semi-structured Interviews
    • Four themes emerged from transcript analysis
    • THEME 3 – Content retention (44% of students)
            • Students believed they retained audio feedback, and the content to which audio feedback was related , better than text-based feedback and related content.
  • 22. Semi-structured Interviews
    • Four themes emerged from transcript analysis
    • THEME 4 – Instructor Caring (30% of students)
      • Students felt that audio was more personal than text
        • Comments frequently related to nuance and tone of voice
  • 23. Document Analysis - Quantity
    • In final projects (series of thematic integrated lesson plans), students used content for which audio feedback was received approximately 3 times more often than content for which text-based feedback received
      • Notice triangulation with Theme 3 from interviews
  • 24. Document Analysis - Quality
    • Students were 5 to 6 times more likely to apply content for which audio feedback was received at the higher levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy than content for which text-based feedback was received
      • Further reinforced interview data
  • 25. Subsequent Data Collection
    • Triangulation and novelty effect
    • Quantitative: 312 students surveyed
      • No decrease in preference after multiple exposures across semesters
    • Qualitative: 51 students interviewed
      • The same themes emerged from content analyses of interview data
  • 26. Efficiency
    • Mean time to provide feedback
      • text = 13.43 minutes
      • audio = 3.81 minutes
    • Mean quantity of feedback
      • text = 129.75 words
      • audio = 331.39 words
  • 27. Confirmatory Data
  • 28. Multi – institutional Research
    • Quantitative: n = 1138
    • Qualitative n = 607
      • 15 institutions
      • Range AA – Ph.D.
    • 7 Likert-type Items
    • Open Qualitative Item – probing for more themes
  • 29. Quantitative Items
    • When using audio feedback, inflection in the instructor’s voice made his / her intent clear.
      • M = 4.53, SD = .652
    • The instructor’s intent was clearer when using audio than text.
      • M = 4.48, SD = .587
    • Audio comments made me feel more involved in the course than text based comments.
      • M = 4.38, SD = .683
  • 30. Quantitative Items
    • Audio comments motivated me more than text based comments.
      • M = 4.46, SD = .702
    • I retained audio comments better than text based comments.
      • M = 4.31, SD = .568
    • Audio comments are more personal than text based comments.
      • M = 4.29, SD = .544
  • 31. Quantitative Items
    • Receiving audio comments made me feel as if the instructor cared more about me and my work than when I received text based comments.
      • M = 4.38, SD = .617
  • 32. Additional Findings
    • No additional themes revealed by analysis of qualitative data
    • No difference among learner or institutional types
    • Some indication that the technique may not be as effective if the instructor is not a native speaker – more data needed
  • 33. Audio and the CoI
    • The following slides compare the findings of the Summer, 2007 multi-institutional CoI instrument validation (n = 287) and responses from the aforementioned study (n = 1138) that received audio feedback In the items addressed there was a significant difference (p > .05) in responses
  • 34. Teaching Presence 1
    • The instructor was helpful in identifying areas of agreement and disagreement on course topics that helped me to learn.
      • Summer 2007 / mean = 4.12
      • Audio group / mean = 4.43
  • 35. Teaching Presence 2
    • The instructor encouraged course participants to explore new concepts in this course.
      • Summer 2007 / mean = 4.44
      • Audio group / mean = 4.58
  • 36. Teaching Presence 3
    • The instructor provided feedback that helped me understand my strengths and weaknesses relative to the course’s goals and objectives.
      • Summer 2007 / mean = 4.28
      • Audio group / mean = 4.57
  • 37. Social Presence
    • Online or web-based communication is an excellent medium for social interaction.
      • Summer 2007 / mean = 3.90
      • Audio group / mean = 4.27
  • 38. Cognitive Presence 1
    • I felt motivated to explore content related questions.
      • Summer 2007 / mean = 4.31
      • Audio group / mean = 4.55
  • 39. Cognitive Presence 2
    • Reflection on course content and discussions helped me understand fundamental concepts in this class.
      • Summer 2007 / mean = 4.37
      • Audio group / mean = 4.49
  • 40. Looking Forward
  • 41. Multimedia Feedback
    • Using highlighting tool provides students to review specific information while listening to instructor comments
    • Using the pencil tool for brief positive affirmation increases student perceptions of connectedness with the instructor
  • 42. Offline Applications
    • Though embedded audio feedback was originally used in the online environment, it is equally powerful in the face-to-face classroom
    • Term papers, spreadsheets, dissertation advising, graphic art projects, etc., etc.
  • 43. Want to Talk More? Phil Ice, Ed.D. [email_address]