THE 17TH CENTURY: 
ABSOLUTE MONARCHY AND THE 
DECLINE OF THE HISPANIC EMPIRE
DEMOGRAPHY: SLOW POPULATION GROWTH, DUE TO HIGH MORTALITY 
RATES CAUSED BY WARS, EPIDEMICS AND FAMINES. 
SOCIETY: STILL DI...
MANUFACTORIES 
Merchants concentrated tools and workers in big workshops. They provided 
the raw materials and paid a sala...
COLONIAL EMPIRES . AMERICA IN THE 17TH CENTURY 
GALLEON 
Heavier ships and with more 
cargo capacity
CASTILIAN AND PORTUGUESE TRADE ROUTES 
The Castilians controlled the precious metals route to America 
The Portuguese cont...
TRADE ROUTES IN THE INDIAN OCEAN 
Other kingdoms 
broke the Iberian 
monopoly in colonial 
trade. England and 
Holland sei...
TRIANGULAR TRADE 
It linked Europe, Africa and America.
TRADING COMPANIES 
EAST INDIA HOUSE IN LONDON 
SEAL OF THE VIRGINIA COMPANY 
LOGO OF THE HUDSON´S BAY 
COMPANY 
Companies ...
THE THIRTY YEARS´ WAR 
-Confrontation between the 
Protestant kingdoms of Northern 
Europe and the Catholic 
kingdoms of S...
PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION LOSS IN THE EMPIRE DURING 
THE THIRTY YEARS´WAR
PEACE OF WESTPHALIA (1648) 
-End of religious wars 
in Europe. 
-Independence of the 
Low Countries (United 
Provinces of ...
ABSOLUTE MONARCHY 
-In theory the king concentrated all the 
powers. His power was unquestionable, 
because it was conside...
Louis XIV built the Versailles 
Palace and organized parties 
and meetings to entertain the 
nobles and avoid revolts and ...
THE ENGLISH REVOLUTIONS
CHARLES I OF ENGLAND (1600-1649) 
He tried to rule as an absolute monarch, 
without the control of the Parliament. He 
arr...
OLIVER CROMWELL 
He was the strongest man of the 
English Republic between 1649 
and 1658. He acted as a dictator. 
In 165...
CHARLES II (1660-1685) 
Charles II was Charles I´s son. He 
had to accept the control of the 
Parliament and the Habeas 
C...
JAMES II (1685-1688) 
He reigned only for three years. His 
religious policy confronted him against 
the Parliament. A new...
WILLIAM OF ORANGE (1688-1702) 
He accepted the proposition of 
some English nobles to dethrone 
James II and become the ki...
THE DECLINE OF THE HISPANIC EMPIRE
PHILIP III (1598-1621) 
He left the government in the hands 
of two favourites: 
DUKE OF LERMA DUKE OF UCEDA
- TWELVE YEARS TRUCE (1609-1621): the Northern Provinces of the Low 
Countries became practically independent 
- EXPULSION...
PHILIP IV (1621-1665) 
COUNT-DUKE OF OLIVARES
Thirty Years´ War (1618-1648) 
The Hispanic Monarchy supported the Catholics. At the beginning the 
Hispanic tercios conqu...
Olivares´s project of the Union of Arms 
provoked uprisings in different kingdoms in 
1640. The most serious revolts took ...
INBREEDING IN THE HOUSE OF HABSBURG
CHARLES II (1665-1700) 
FERNANDO DE VALENZUELA 
Phisically and mentally disabled and constantly sick, 
he was known as “th...
DEMOGRAPHY, ECONOMY AND SOCIETY 
-DEMOGRAPHY: population decreased due to bad harvests, wars, plagues, 
migration to the I...
The Lazarillo de Tormes (anonymous writer) and The Swindler 
(written by Quevedo) reflected the society of the 17th centur...
THE GOLDEN AGE OF LITERATURE 
QUEVEDO CERVANTES LOPE DE VEGA GÓNGORA 
CALDERÓN DE LA BARCA TIRSO DE MOLINA
The 17th century: Absolute Monarchy and the Decline of the Hispanic Empire
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The 17th century: Absolute Monarchy and the Decline of the Hispanic Empire

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Demography, society, economy and politics in the 17th century. Absolute Monarchy, the English Revolutions and the decline of the Hispanic Empire.

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The 17th century: Absolute Monarchy and the Decline of the Hispanic Empire

  1. 1. THE 17TH CENTURY: ABSOLUTE MONARCHY AND THE DECLINE OF THE HISPANIC EMPIRE
  2. 2. DEMOGRAPHY: SLOW POPULATION GROWTH, DUE TO HIGH MORTALITY RATES CAUSED BY WARS, EPIDEMICS AND FAMINES. SOCIETY: STILL DIVIDED INTO ESTATES (PRIVILEGED AND UNDERPRIVILEGED) INCREASING DISCONTENT OF THE BOURGEOIS (ECONOMIC POWER, BUT NO POLITICAL POWER) ECONOMY: - AGRICULTURE CONTINUED TO BE THE PREDOMINANT ECONOMIC ACTIVITY. - SOME CHANGES IN PRODUCTION ( MANUFACTORIES) AND TRADE (NEW ROUTES AND TRADING COMPANIES).
  3. 3. MANUFACTORIES Merchants concentrated tools and workers in big workshops. They provided the raw materials and paid a salary to the workers. Finished products belonged to the merchants, who could sell them directly in the market, without intermediaries. GOBELINS ROYAL MANUFACTORY, PARIS In some kingdoms the State created royal manufactories to provide the royal palaces with tapestry, crockery, glassware and so on.
  4. 4. COLONIAL EMPIRES . AMERICA IN THE 17TH CENTURY GALLEON Heavier ships and with more cargo capacity
  5. 5. CASTILIAN AND PORTUGUESE TRADE ROUTES The Castilians controlled the precious metals route to America The Portuguese controlled the spice route to Asia.
  6. 6. TRADE ROUTES IN THE INDIAN OCEAN Other kingdoms broke the Iberian monopoly in colonial trade. England and Holland seized several Portuguese colonies in Asia (India and Indonesia)
  7. 7. TRIANGULAR TRADE It linked Europe, Africa and America.
  8. 8. TRADING COMPANIES EAST INDIA HOUSE IN LONDON SEAL OF THE VIRGINIA COMPANY LOGO OF THE HUDSON´S BAY COMPANY Companies dedicated to trade, whose shareholders invested money in a commercial business and received benefits in proportion to their investment. Trading companies got the protection of the States they belonged to.
  9. 9. THE THIRTY YEARS´ WAR -Confrontation between the Protestant kingdoms of Northern Europe and the Catholic kingdoms of Southern Europe. - France fought for the Protestants to defy the Habsburg ´s hegemony. -The main battles took place in the Habsburg Empire.
  10. 10. PERCENTAGE OF POPULATION LOSS IN THE EMPIRE DURING THE THIRTY YEARS´WAR
  11. 11. PEACE OF WESTPHALIA (1648) -End of religious wars in Europe. -Independence of the Low Countries (United Provinces of the Netherlands) -End of the Hispanic hegemony in Europe. France became hegemonic. -Consolidation of the State- nations and Absolute Monarchy.
  12. 12. ABSOLUTE MONARCHY -In theory the king concentrated all the powers. His power was unquestionable, because it was considered to be derived from God. -But in practice there were some institutions that limited the king´s power to a certain extent: councils, Parliaments… Kings tried to avoid calling the Parliament. Louis XIV of France was the perfect example of an absolute monarch.
  13. 13. Louis XIV built the Versailles Palace and organized parties and meetings to entertain the nobles and avoid revolts and conspiracies against his power. Versailles Palace is an example of the king´s power.
  14. 14. THE ENGLISH REVOLUTIONS
  15. 15. CHARLES I OF ENGLAND (1600-1649) He tried to rule as an absolute monarch, without the control of the Parliament. He arrested and executed those who opposed him. The Parliament rebelled and a civil war started. In 1649 Charles I was decapitated and the Republic was proclaimed.
  16. 16. OLIVER CROMWELL He was the strongest man of the English Republic between 1649 and 1658. He acted as a dictator. In 1658 he was appointed Lord Protector. After his death, monarchy was reestablished in 1660.
  17. 17. CHARLES II (1660-1685) Charles II was Charles I´s son. He had to accept the control of the Parliament and the Habeas Corpus, which prevented arbitrary detentions and guaranteed individual freedom. At his death the Duke of York, his brother, became the king. He reigned as James II.
  18. 18. JAMES II (1685-1688) He reigned only for three years. His religious policy confronted him against the Parliament. A new revolution against absolutism started. A group of nobles asked James II´s son-in-law, the Dutch prince William of Orange, to invade England. When William of Orange invaded England James II fled to France, where he was hosted by Louis XIV.
  19. 19. WILLIAM OF ORANGE (1688-1702) He accepted the proposition of some English nobles to dethrone James II and become the king of England on the condition of limiting his power. In 1689 he swore the BILL OF THE RIGHTS, which limited the king´s power and put some decisions under the control of the Parliament. England was the first country to have a limited monarchy, with separation of the executive (king) and the legislative (Parliament) powers.
  20. 20. THE DECLINE OF THE HISPANIC EMPIRE
  21. 21. PHILIP III (1598-1621) He left the government in the hands of two favourites: DUKE OF LERMA DUKE OF UCEDA
  22. 22. - TWELVE YEARS TRUCE (1609-1621): the Northern Provinces of the Low Countries became practically independent - EXPULSION OF THE MOORISH (1609): more than 300,000 people were expelled (20% of the population of the kingdom of Aragón and 33% of the kingdom of Valencia). This strongly affected the Crown of Aragón´s economy. -DEVALUATION OF CURRENCY: gold and silver coins were mixed with copper. Expulsion of the Moorish at Denia port
  23. 23. PHILIP IV (1621-1665) COUNT-DUKE OF OLIVARES
  24. 24. Thirty Years´ War (1618-1648) The Hispanic Monarchy supported the Catholics. At the beginning the Hispanic tercios conquered Breda (1634), but the intervention of France changed the sign of war and the tercios were defeated in Rocroi (1643). The Surrender of Breda Velázquez Rocroi At the end of the war the United Provinces of the Netherlands became independent and the Hispanic Monarchy lost the supremacy in Europe
  25. 25. Olivares´s project of the Union of Arms provoked uprisings in different kingdoms in 1640. The most serious revolts took place in: - Catalonia, supported by France. The conflict ended with the Peace of the Pyrenees (1659): Aragon lost the territories of Roussillon and Perpignan. - Portugal: the conflict ended with the Treaty of Lisbon and the definitive independence of Portugal (1668) Count Duke of Olivares Reapers´ war in Catalonia
  26. 26. INBREEDING IN THE HOUSE OF HABSBURG
  27. 27. CHARLES II (1665-1700) FERNANDO DE VALENZUELA Phisically and mentally disabled and constantly sick, he was known as “the Hexed”. Complicated situation and a powerful enemy: France When he died without direct successors, a succession war started, JUAN JOSÉ OF AUSTRIA
  28. 28. DEMOGRAPHY, ECONOMY AND SOCIETY -DEMOGRAPHY: population decreased due to bad harvests, wars, plagues, migration to the Indies and the expulsion of the Moorish. -ECONOMIC RECESSION: negative political decisions, inefficient farming techniques and competition of cheaper and better quality foreign products -SOCIETY: nobility was the social model and manual work was considered to be shameful and dishonest. Many people wanted to live without working. The economic recession made the number of beggars and rogues bigger. Beggars and rogues, painted by Murillo
  29. 29. The Lazarillo de Tormes (anonymous writer) and The Swindler (written by Quevedo) reflected the society of the 17th century.
  30. 30. THE GOLDEN AGE OF LITERATURE QUEVEDO CERVANTES LOPE DE VEGA GÓNGORA CALDERÓN DE LA BARCA TIRSO DE MOLINA

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