WAR OF SPANISH SUCCESSION (1700-1714)
When Charles II died without direct
successors, he left his kingdoms to
Philip of Anjou, Louis XIV´s grandson.
different european powers
disagreed with his testament
Austria, the Low Countries, Portugal
and Great Britain were against the
French influence over the Hispanic
Monarchy and supported Archduke
Charles of Austria.
In the Iberian Peninsula:
- Castile supported Philip of Anjou
- Aragón supported Archduke
Charles, because they feared the
PHILIP OF ANJOU ARCHDUKE CHARLES
DEVELOPMENT OF THE WAR
- Equal forces on both sides.
- The British invaded Gibraltar and
- The French-Castilian army defeated
those who supported Archduke
charles in Almansa (1707)
- When the Emperor of Austria died,
Archduke Charles became Emperor.
fearing Austria´s reinforcement, the
European powers looked for an
agreement to end the war and they
signed the Treaty of Utrecht
- The war continued in Catalonia until
1714, when Barcelona was bombed by
Philip V´s order. Finally they
BATTLE OF ALMANSA
1714 IN BARCELONA
TREATIES OF UTRECHT-RASTATT (1713-1714)
- Philip V was recognized as king of
king of the Bourbon
dynasty). He had to renounce to his
rights to the crown of france.
- All the European posessions of the
Hispanic Monarchy were for Austria
(Flanders, Luxembourg, Sardinia,
Naples and Milan) and Savoy (Sicily
- Great Britain kept Minorca and
Gibraltar and they got two rights in
the Indies, which broke the Spanish
monopoly in their colonies: the
assiento (selling slaves in the
Spanish American colonies) and the
ship of permission (annual fleet of
500 tones with products to sell in the
CENTRALIZED ABSOLUTISM: PHILIP V AND FERDINAND VI
PHILIP V AND ISABELLA FARNESE (HIS 2ND
PHILIP V (1700- 1746)
He imposed absolutism, inspired on
France´s political system:
- Nueva Planta Decrees: elimination of
the particular laws and institutions of
the Crown of Aragon.
- All the Castilian institutions were
extended to all the territory:
- The Cortes of Castile became
Cortes of Spain, but they were
- Corregidors in the municipalities
- Audiencias (courts of justice)
- King helped by secretaries (they
formed the cabinet) and councils
- Division of the territory into provinces
(captain-generals in charge of the
- Intendants to collect taxes.
PHILIP V´S SUCCESSION
Philip V had frequent depressive episodes. He
abdicated in favour of his son Louis in 1724.
Louis I reigned only for six months.
When Louis I died, Philip V was forced to
return to the throne, but he left everyday rule
on his secretaries until his death in 1746.
His son Ferdinand VI (son of his 1st
Louise Gabrielle of Savoy) became the new
FERDINAND VI (1746-1759)
Some competent ministers worked during his
reign: the marquis of Ensenada (Cadastre: land
registry to establish a unique tax) and Carvajal.
They modernized the navy and tried to control
trade with the Indies.
His succesor was his
half brother Charles (son
of Isabella of Farnese).
- He had been king of Naples for 20 years
before arriving in Spain.
- Representative of Enlightened Despotism
- Many of his ministers were enlightened:
Esquilache, Campomanes, Wall, Grimaldi,
the Counts of Aranda and Floridablanca.
CHARLES III (1759-1788)
At the beginning of his reign, he had
- the privileged didn’t like some of
the reforms promoted by his Italian
- People’s discontent also increased
for the increase of prices due to the
liberalization of the price of wheat
and public order ordinances on
sanitation and clothing.
In March 1766 the revolt called the
ESQUILACHE RIOTS started: the
people demanded Esquilache’s
dismissal, the elimination of the
ordinance on clothing and the
lowering of staples. Charles III
accepted all the demands.
The riot was controlled, but Charles III
dismissed Esquilache and a year
later he expelled the Jesuits
(accused of having participated in
the riots), but he went on with
PUBLIC ORDER ORDINANCES
(cutting cloaks and brims to avoid criminal impunity)
- Expulsion of the Jesuits (1767)
- Colonization of new land (Sierra
- Limitation of the Mesta privileges.
- Support to economic development
through the Economic Societies of
the Friends of the Country.
- Educational reforms: primary schools
and reform of university and
- Decree declaring honesty of all
- Reports on the agrarian reform
- Free trade with the Indies (all ports
- Liberalization of the price of wheat.
All these reforms were limited and didn´t question the
political or social structure of the Ancien Régime.
JOVELLANOS REPORT ON
THE AGRARIAN REFORM
SOCIETY OFTHE FRIENDS
OF THE COUNTRY
CHARLES IV (1788-1808)
When Charles III died, his son
Charles IV became the new king.
He was not gifted to rule and
Charles III adviced him to keep
the counts of Aranda and
Floridablanca as ministers.
His rule was conditioned by the
French Revolution. The crisis of
the Ancien Régime in Spain
broke out during his reign.