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Spain in the 18th century


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The War of Spanish Succession, Centralist Absolutism (Philip V and Ferdinand VI) and Enlightened Reformism (Charles III)

Published in: Education, Travel

Spain in the 18th century

  2. 2. WAR OF SPANISH SUCCESSION (1700-1714) When Charles II died without direct successors, he left his kingdoms to Philip of Anjou, Louis XIV´s grandson. different european powers disagreed with his testament Austria, the Low Countries, Portugal and Great Britain were against the French influence over the Hispanic Monarchy and supported Archduke Charles of Austria. In the Iberian Peninsula: - Castile supported Philip of Anjou - Aragón supported Archduke Charles, because they feared the French absolutism. PHILIP OF ANJOU ARCHDUKE CHARLES OF AUSTRIA
  3. 3. DEVELOPMENT OF THE WAR - Equal forces on both sides. - The British invaded Gibraltar and Minorca - The French-Castilian army defeated those who supported Archduke charles in Almansa (1707) - When the Emperor of Austria died, Archduke Charles became Emperor. fearing Austria´s reinforcement, the European powers looked for an agreement to end the war and they signed the Treaty of Utrecht - The war continued in Catalonia until 1714, when Barcelona was bombed by Philip V´s order. Finally they surrendered. BATTLE OF ALMANSA SEPTEMBER 11th 1714 IN BARCELONA
  4. 4. TREATIES OF UTRECHT-RASTATT (1713-1714) - Philip V was recognized as king of Spain (1st king of the Bourbon dynasty). He had to renounce to his rights to the crown of france. - All the European posessions of the Hispanic Monarchy were for Austria (Flanders, Luxembourg, Sardinia, Naples and Milan) and Savoy (Sicily and Nice) - Great Britain kept Minorca and Gibraltar and they got two rights in the Indies, which broke the Spanish monopoly in their colonies: the assiento (selling slaves in the Spanish American colonies) and the ship of permission (annual fleet of 500 tones with products to sell in the Spanish colonies)
  7. 7. PHILIP V (1700- 1746) He imposed absolutism, inspired on France´s political system: - Nueva Planta Decrees: elimination of the particular laws and institutions of the Crown of Aragon. - All the Castilian institutions were extended to all the territory: - The Cortes of Castile became Cortes of Spain, but they were barely called - Corregidors in the municipalities - Audiencias (courts of justice) - King helped by secretaries (they formed the cabinet) and councils - Division of the territory into provinces (captain-generals in charge of the administration) - Intendants to collect taxes. PHILIP V´S PAINTING IN XÀTIVA MUSEUM CATALONIA´S NUEVA PLANTA DECREE
  8. 8. PHILIP V´S SUCCESSION Philip V had frequent depressive episodes. He abdicated in favour of his son Louis in 1724. Louis I reigned only for six months. When Louis I died, Philip V was forced to return to the throne, but he left everyday rule on his secretaries until his death in 1746. His son Ferdinand VI (son of his 1st wife, Mary Louise Gabrielle of Savoy) became the new king. LOUIS I
  9. 9. FERDINAND VI (1746-1759) Some competent ministers worked during his reign: the marquis of Ensenada (Cadastre: land registry to establish a unique tax) and Carvajal. They modernized the navy and tried to control trade with the Indies. ENSENADA´S CADASTRE MARQUIS OF ENSENADA His succesor was his half brother Charles (son of Isabella of Farnese). FERDINAND VI
  10. 10. ENLIGHTENED DESPOTISM - He had been king of Naples for 20 years before arriving in Spain. - Representative of Enlightened Despotism in Spain. - Many of his ministers were enlightened: Esquilache, Campomanes, Wall, Grimaldi, the Counts of Aranda and Floridablanca. ARANDA FLORIDABLANCA CHARLES III CHARLES III (1759-1788)
  11. 11. At the beginning of his reign, he had some problems: - the privileged didn’t like some of the reforms promoted by his Italian minister Esquilache - People’s discontent also increased for the increase of prices due to the liberalization of the price of wheat and public order ordinances on sanitation and clothing. In March 1766 the revolt called the ESQUILACHE RIOTS started: the people demanded Esquilache’s dismissal, the elimination of the ordinance on clothing and the lowering of staples. Charles III accepted all the demands. The riot was controlled, but Charles III dismissed Esquilache and a year later he expelled the Jesuits (accused of having participated in the riots), but he went on with reforms. PUBLIC ORDER ORDINANCES (cutting cloaks and brims to avoid criminal impunity) ESQUILACHE RIOTS
  12. 12. ENLIGHTENED REFORMISM - Expulsion of the Jesuits (1767) - Colonization of new land (Sierra Morena). - Limitation of the Mesta privileges. - Support to economic development through the Economic Societies of the Friends of the Country. - Educational reforms: primary schools and reform of university and professional studies. - Decree declaring honesty of all professions. - Reports on the agrarian reform - Free trade with the Indies (all ports allowed) - Liberalization of the price of wheat. All these reforms were limited and didn´t question the political or social structure of the Ancien Régime. EXPULSION OF THE JESUITS JOVELLANOS REPORT ON THE AGRARIAN REFORM JACA´S ECONOMIC SOCIETY OFTHE FRIENDS OF THE COUNTRY
  13. 13. CHARLES IV (1788-1808) When Charles III died, his son Charles IV became the new king. He was not gifted to rule and Charles III adviced him to keep the counts of Aranda and Floridablanca as ministers. His rule was conditioned by the French Revolution. The crisis of the Ancien Régime in Spain broke out during his reign.