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Conquest, colonization and administration of the Indies

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The conquest, the colonization, the administration and the exploitation of the Indies.

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Conquest, colonization and administration of the Indies

  1. 1. CONQUEST, COLONIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF THE INDIES
  2. 2. During Charles V and Philip II´s reigns the conquest of the Indies was fulfilled and the administration of the territory was established. The Crown organized the exploration and conquest of the Indies through agreements (capitulations) with explorers and conquistadors. The capitulations established the conditions, privileges, honours and rights every part would receive and the distribution of the riches discovered, following the model of the capitulations signed by Columbus and the Catholic Monarchs.
  3. 3. THE CONQUEST Quick conquest, due to: -Military superiority of the conquistadors: horses, gunpowder, guns… - Ambitions and desire of enrichment of the conquistadors - Rivalry between the indigenous cultures. The conquistadors took advantage of these rivalries and signed alliances with some tribes to compensate their lack of soldiers in the Indies. -Impact of the European diseases over the Amerindians
  4. 4. DEMOGRAPHIC IMPACT OF THE COLONIZATION OF THE INDIES The Europeans spread many diseases that resulted mortal for the Amerindians: -Measles -Smallpox -Flu -Typhus There was a demographic catastrophe, especially in the Caribbean Islands: African slaves were brought to substitute the dead. Smallpox epidemics In many places,the population didn´t recover the Pre-Hispanic levels until the 20th century
  5. 5. Vasco Núñez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached the Pacific Ocean in 1513 EXPLORATIONS NÚÑEZ DE BALBOA
  6. 6. FIRST CIRCUMNAVIGATION OF THE WORLD Magellan and Elcano expedition found a sea route from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean and it proved that the Earth is a sphere.
  7. 7. PONCE DE LEÓN FLORIDA ORELLANA, AMAZON RIVER CABEZA DE VACA, IGUAZÚ FALLS AND GULF OF MEXICO •Ponce de León discovered Florida •Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca explored Florida, Texas and California. •Hernando de Soto reached the Mississippi River in 1541. •Francisco de Orellana sailed the Amazon River in 1542.
  8. 8. STAGES OF THE CONQUEST CONQUEST OF THE ANTILLES1ST STAGE 2ND STAGE 3RD STAGE CONQUEST OF THE AZTEC EMPIRE CONQUEST OF THE INCA EMPIRE
  9. 9. CONQUEST OF THE ANTILLES (1492-1519) - it finished in 1511. - As most of the Amerindians died, the islands were repopulated with black slaves brought from Africa. - After the discovery of the eastern coast of Brazil by Pedro Álvarez Cabral in 1500, the Portuguese began to occupy Brazil, as had been decided in the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494). ÁLVAREZ CABRAL EXPEDITION
  10. 10. CONQUEST OF THE AZTEC EMPIRE HERNÁN CORTÉS MOCTEZUMA - Led by Hernán Cortés. -Cortés and his men captured Moctezuma, the Aztec Emperor and defeated the Aztecs in the Battle of Otumba (1521) with the cooperation of other indigenous peoples (Toltecs and Olmecs). -Later Cortés conquered Guatemala and Honduras.
  11. 11. CONQUEST OF THE INCA EMPIRE FRANCISCO PIZARRO ATAHUALPA DIEGO DE ALMAGRO PEDRO VALDIVIA - Led by Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro. - They captured and killed Atahualpa, the Inca Emperor in 1533 and occupied Cuzco, the capital city of the Empire. - Later Pedro de Valdivia conquered Chile, fighting against the Araucanians.
  12. 12. JUAN DE GARAY •Juan de Garay founded the city of Buenos Aires in 1536. This territory was later called Río de la Plata (River Plate). •In Asia, Legazpi and Urdaneta conquered the Philippines Islands. OTHER CONQUESTS ANDRÉS DE URDANETA
  13. 13. ADMINISTRATION: INSTITUTIONS TO RULE THE INDIES CASA DE LA CONTRATACIÓN (TRADING HOUSE) SEVILLE COUNCIL OF THE INDIES It controlled trade with the Indies and collected the royal fifth (20% of trade transactions) -It made the Laws of the Indies -It appointed the people who had to hold posts in the Indies
  14. 14. INSTITUTIONS IN THE INDIES - TWO VICE-ROYALTIES: - New Spain -Perú In the 18th century two more Vice- royalties were created: New Granada and Río de la Plata. Viceroys were appointed by the Council of the Indies and were the king’s representatives in the Indies. The viceroyalties were divided into provinces, called governorates, ruled by governors. -CABILDOS to rule municipalities -AUDIENCIAS (Courts of Justice)
  15. 15. EXPLOITATION OF THE INDIES ENCOMIENDA MITA Every colonist received a plot of land and a number of Amerindians to work in them. The only obligation of the colonist with the Amerindians was to teach them the Catholic religion and to protect them. Forced work in the mines. The natives received a salary in exchange for their work, but they were forced to buy all they needed in the colonists´ shops. The kings forbade indigenous slavery and considered the Amerindias to be their subjects. But many colonists abused the Amerindians.
  16. 16. BARTOLOMÉ DE LAS CASAS DEFENSE OF THE NATIVES The Dominican friar Bartolomé de las Casas, a former encomendero denounced the explotation of the Amerindians and defended them from the brutality of the colonists. He wrote A short account of the destruction of the Indies. His fight led to the passing of the New Laws of the Indies, which ordered the dissolution of the encomienda system and forbade indigenous slavery. He was appointed “Protector of the Indians”, although he never rejected black slavery.
  17. 17. POPULATION OF THE INDIES MESTIZO SLAVES FROM AFRICAAMERINDIANS CREOLESPENINSULARS
  18. 18. PRODUCTS FROM AMERICAN ORIGIN Some of them. like corn and potato, were basic to reduce hunger and improve the Europeans´ diet.

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