Modern Ages S. XV - XVIII Beginning The Discovery of America (1492). 2 ) The Protestant Reformation (1517). The End French Revolution (1789) 1) The c apture of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453 Other events:
Concepts 1. Economy and society. - Exploration and discoveries. - Economic transformation. - Society. 2. Politics, Religion and Science. 3. The Spanish Monarchy. - Habsburg Spain. - The Bourbon Dynasty. 4. Art and culture. - Art and literature in Spain.
<ul><li>Exploration and discoveries </li></ul><ul><li>During the 15th and 16th centuries, many geographic discoveries took place . </li></ul>In 1492, Christopher Columbus started a journey to the East Indies, with the money from the Catholic Kings of Spain. During that journey, Colombus discovered America. Economy and society
Columbus thought that the Earth was round. He believed he had reached the Indies in his journey. Columbus died believing he had reached the East by sailing west, but instead he had discovered a “new world.” A New World
Economic transformation Agriculture was the main economic activity International commerce increased European countries produced more coins The first bank accumulated money and charged interest for loans. The first modern factories appeared Voyages of Columbus, Magellan-Elcano and Vasco da Gama
Society During the modern age, society was divided into three groups : Nobility Clergy Commoners
<ul><li>Royalty </li></ul><ul><li>Members of the upper class </li></ul>Nobility <ul><li>They had special privileges </li></ul><ul><li>They could govern </li></ul><ul><li>They didn´t have to pay taxes </li></ul><ul><li>They had their own courts of law </li></ul>Clergy <ul><li>Church officials (such a </li></ul><ul><li>bishops and priests) </li></ul>
Commoners Burghers (lived in towns and cities) Begars (lived in towns and cities) Peasants (lived in the country) <ul><li>They became a powerful social and economic group including: </li></ul><ul><li>Merchants </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors </li></ul><ul><li>Lawyers </li></ul><ul><li>Artisans </li></ul><ul><li>Shopkeepers </li></ul><ul><li>Formed the largest social group </li></ul><ul><li>They were usually very poor </li></ul><ul><li>Some of them lived in terrible conditions </li></ul>
Important changes occurred during this period The origin of modern states Religious conflicts The origin of Modern Science Politics, religion and science
The origin of modern states At the beginning of the16th century, European monarchies dominated an unifed territory, created permanent armies, chose diplomats and ambassadors, developed a very organised administrations and collected new taxes to pay for their armies
Religious conflicts <ul><li>The Modern Age was a time of religious intolerance and conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Luther published criticisms of The Catholic Church </li></ul><ul><li>European Christians divided into two groups: Catholics and Protestants </li></ul><ul><li>There were religious wars between Catholics Protestants and Muslims </li></ul><ul><li>In some Catholics countries there was an institution called the Inquisition </li></ul>
The origin of Modern Science Begins the development of modern science because of : <ul><li>Basic scientific aspects. Observation and mathematics. </li></ul><ul><li>The invention of printing (Gutenberg 1543) </li></ul><ul><li>The secularization of Science </li></ul><ul><li>The fusion of science and technique. New instruments and machines are discovered </li></ul><ul><li>The scientific method d esigns experiments and explains the result </li></ul><ul><li>Some of greatest thinkers : </li></ul>Copernicus's heliocentric theory says, the sun is the center of the solar system Leonardo da Vinci designed many unusual machines Miguel Servet discovered the pulmonary circulatory motion Other great thinkers were Galileo, Descartes, Bacon, Pascal, Newton, Limaeus and Jenner .
In Spain, the modern age began with the reign of the Catholic kings (Isabel I of Castilla, and Fernando II of Aragón). During their reign they: <ul><li>Unified their kingdoms </li></ul><ul><li>Increased their power and created a modern state </li></ul><ul><li>Were intolerant toward other religions, and persecuted Jews and Muslims. </li></ul><ul><li>Conquered new territories: </li></ul><ul><li>Gave money to Columbus for the journey in which he discovered America. </li></ul><ul><li>Granada (1492) </li></ul><ul><li>The Canary Island (1496) </li></ul><ul><li>Melilla(1497) </li></ul><ul><li>They took over the Kingdom of Navarra </li></ul>surrender of Granada The Spanish monarchy
Habsburg Spain -Habsburg dynasty Spain is a huge empire with territories in: <ul><li>Europe </li></ul><ul><li>America </li></ul><ul><li>Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Oceania </li></ul>Habsburg dynasty = House of Austria (16th and 17th century) Spanish Empire Total Expansion <ul><li>It begins with Charles I (grandson of the Catholic Kings) </li></ul><ul><li>Most important members of the House of Austria are: Carlos I and Felipe II </li></ul><ul><li>The next habsburg king are: Felipe III, Felipe IV and Carlos II </li></ul><ul><li>They had many problems related to the economic crisis in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>They also had conflicts with other countries, like England and France. </li></ul>Carlos I Felipe II
The Bourbon Dynasty Background : <ul><li>Charles II died childless in 1700 </li></ul><ul><li>Succession War began </li></ul><ul><li>Spain lose power in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>A new dynasty replaced the Habsburg: The Bourbon Dynasty </li></ul><ul><li>Felipe V was the first of the Bourbon dynasty which continues to reign today </li></ul>Felipe V <ul><li>Absolutist monarch </li></ul><ul><li>He centralised the government </li></ul><ul><li>Chose new officials to control his lands </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminated many local laws and institutions </li></ul><ul><li>and created new ones for the whole empire </li></ul>The next Bourbon king were: Fernando VI and Carlos III Carlos III <ul><li>He was king during the Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>He started many new plans to modernize Spain </li></ul><ul><li>He improved Spain´s system of roads and </li></ul><ul><li>He modernized agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>He establisehed the Royal Factories to promote industry </li></ul>The next Bourbon king were: Carlos IV, Fernando VII, Isabel II, Alfonso XII, Alfonso XIII And Juan Carlos I ( current monarch )
Carlos III was king during the Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment was an elite cultural movement of intellectuals in 18th century Europe, that sought to mobilize the power of reason , in order to reform society and advance knowledge . It promoted science and intellectual interchange and opposed superstition, intolerance and abuses by the Church or the States <ul><li>Carlos III, king of Spain from 1759 to 1788, tried to rescue his empire from decay through far-reaching reforms such as weakening the Church and its monasteries, promoting science and university research, facilitating trade and commerce, modernizing agriculture, and avoiding wars. Spain relapsed after his death. </li></ul><ul><li>Carlos III created the Astronomical Observatory, the Botanical Garden, Natural History Museum and the Royal Academies. In addition, beautiful palaces, monuments, fountains and gardens were also built in many cities of the empire . </li></ul>The Astronomical Observatory today The Puerta de Alcala today
The main artistic styles of the Modern Age were: Renaissance Baroque Neoclassical Downing College, Cambridge Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man David by Bernini Art And Culture
The Renaissance style Main characteristics: <ul><li>This style is typical in the 15 th and 16 th centuries. </li></ul><ul><li>It was inspired by ancient Greek and Roman art, and by new knowledge about human anatomy and perspective. </li></ul><ul><li>The man is the center of the universe ( anthropocentrism ), capable of dominating the world and create his own destiny. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of most famous Renaissance artist are Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael </li></ul>Mona Lisa by Leonardo da Vinci is a master piece of Renaissance Michelangelo’s Pietà
The Baroque style <ul><li>This style was typical in the 17th century and the first half of the 18 century. </li></ul><ul><li>It used lots of curved lines, decoration and dramatic effects, such as contrasts between light and dark areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of most famous Renaissance artist are Bernini, Rembrandt, Rubens and Caravaggio . </li></ul>Main characteristics: Caravaggio, Supper at Emmaus 1601 Rembrandt van Rijn, The Night Watch or The Militia Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, 1642 Tomb of Pope Alexander - Chigi VII by Gian Lorenzo Bernini, 1671-1678
THE NEOCLASSICAL STYLE <ul><li>This style was typical of the second half of the 18th century. </li></ul><ul><li>It returned to the classical styles and concepts of ancient Greece and Rome. </li></ul><ul><li>This style was especially important in architecture. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of most famous Neoclassical architects are Gabriel, Soufflot, Peyre, Fontayne, Del Cagnola, etc.,... and the greatest exponent of neoclassicism in painting is about the French painter Jacques Louis David </li></ul>Main characteristics: L'École Militaire on the Champ de Mars, Paris by Ange-Jacques Gabriel The Pantheon Paris, France by Jacques-Germain Soufflot .1757 The Death of Marat by Jacques Louis David (1793)
Art and Literature in Spain In Spain there were great artists who made an important contribution the world of art and literature. At The beginning of the 16th century, the most important painter in Spain was Doménikos Theotokópoulos EL Greco Portrait of An Old Man (presumed self-portrait of El Greco), circa 1595–1600 <ul><li>El Greco was a painter Renaissance-Mannerist </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of his painting </li></ul><ul><li>Elongation of faces and hands </li></ul><ul><li>Tendency to fill the entire space of the picture. </li></ul><ul><li>Richly colored, with a predominance of yellow ocher </li></ul><ul><li>Religious themes </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics common to many Mannerist work include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Distortion of the human figure, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A flattening of pictorial space, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intellectual sophistication </li></ul></ul>The Burial of the Count of Orgaz (1586–1588, Santo Tomé, Toledo), now El Greco's best known work, illustrates a popular local legend.
WRITERS At The beginning of the 16th century, the most important writers in Spain were Santa Teresa de Jesús and Garcilaso de la Vega <ul><li>Renaissance writer </li></ul><ul><li>Two features that are destarcarse Garcilaso's personality are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The absence of war echoes in his work, despite its military and its intense dedication to the task of arms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The second is his personality essentially secular. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As a writer, made the greatest importance poetry has had on Spanish poetry. </li></ul><ul><li>He knew to perfection the Greek, Latin, Italian and French. </li></ul>Santa Teresa de Jesús <ul><li>The Golden Age writer , </li></ul><ul><li>Mystic with his feet on the ground. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The mystical experience designate a type of very difficult to achieve when you reach the maximum degree of binding of the sacred human soul during earthly existence. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Doctor of the Church </li></ul><ul><li>Mysticism means all literary works written about spiritual experiences. </li></ul>Garcilaso de la Vega
Spanish Golden Age (Painting) <ul><li>For the Golden Age refers to the classical era of the Spanish culture, essentially the XVI century Renaissance and the Baroque of the XVII century. </li></ul>Painting : In the golden age, there were great painters like Ribera (el españoleto), Ribalta, Murillo, Zurbarán, Machuca ... and especially Velazquez Descent from the Cross by Machuca, Museo Nacional del Prado Beggar Boys Eating Grapes and Melon , , by Murillo. St.Mary Magdalene, o St. Thais , 1641 by Ribera St. Hugh of Cluny in the Refectory of the Carthusians, (1630-35) by Zurbaran
Diego Velázquez Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velázquez , known as Diego Velázquez, was a Baroque painter, considered one of the leading exponents of Spanish painting and master painters. Las Meninas (1656). This complex picture is the top of his painting. The mastery of light as a true feel of the room air. What mainly stands out in the table is the perspective, which uses Velasquez, aerial perspective, is that the colors fade with distance, giving the impression that there is air around the room. <ul><li>Some of the most important contributions to the painting Velázquez include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of light and he conquest of the deep (Both models have remained insurmountable). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The painters who can be considered disciples of Velazquez are Juan Bautista Martinez, and Juan de Pareja </li></ul>
Also in the Golden Age in Spain had great writers such as: Quevedo (El Buscón, Parnaso Español…). Gongora ( La fábula de Polifemo y Galatea, Las Soledades y many sonnets ). Lope de Vega ( Fuente Ovejuna,Rimas,El Perro del Hortelano,La Hermosura de Angélica,La Jerusalén conquistada,Peribañez y el Comendador de Ocaña,Los Pastores de belén,La Dama Boba,El Caballero de Olmedo,la Dorotea; some of his works). Calderon de la Barca (Comedies - El alcalde de Zalamea , La vida es sueño …-, dramas of honor- El médico de su honra , A secreto agravio…- , autos sacramentales -The great theater of the world, The King Belshazzar's Feast …-, entremeses, loas , etc. Other writers are : Tirso de molina , Juan Ruiz de Alarcón ;, Baltasar Gracian , Mateo Aleman , etc). Ret rato de Francisco de Quevedo Félix lope de Vega y Carpio D. Luis de Góngora, by Diego de Velázquez Literature Pedro Calderón de la Barca Tirso de Molina (fray Gabriel Téllez )
Cover of the first edition of Don Quixote (1605) . ... and possibly the most important writer of the Golden Age Miguel de Cervantes is the masterpiece of Spanish literature, Don Quixote Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra . (Baptised in October 1547; died 23 April 1616) . He was a Spanish novelist , poet , and playwright . His magnum opus , Don Quixote , considered the first modern novel is a classic of Western literature , and is regarded amongst the best works of fiction ever written. His influence on the Spanish language has been so great that the language is often called la lengua de Cervantes ("the language of Cervantes"). Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra Don Quixote is considered the most influential work of literature from the Spanish Golden Age and the entire Spanish literary canon. As a founding work of modern Western literature, and one of the earliest canonical novels, it regularly appears high on lists of the greatest works of fiction ever published. In one such list, Don Quixote was cited as the "best literary work ever written". Other works may be La Galatea, Rinconete y Cortadillo, Novelas Ejemplares, Los trabajos de Persiles y Segismunda y Los Baños de Argel .