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Ch 16.2


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Ch 16.2

  1. 1. M A G I S T E R R I C A R D A P E U R O T H E C U L T U R E O F A B S O L U T I S M A N D C O N S T I T U T I O N A L I S M CH 16: Absolutism and Constitutionalism in Western Europe (1589-1715)
  2. 2. Questions to Consider  How did the influence of absolute monarchs affect culture?  Or did the cultural influences of the time create the notion of an absolute monarch?  How did the monarchs of England lose their power?
  3. 3. C H A P T E R 1 6 : A B S O L U T I S M A N D C O N S T I T U T I O N A L I S M I N W E S T E R N E U R O P E ( 1 5 8 9 - 1 7 1 5 ) The Culture of Absolutism
  4. 4. Baroque Art and Music  Rome and the Catholic Church played a key role in development of baroque style  Most fully developed in Catholic countries  Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) represents baroque painting  Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) represents baroque music
  5. 5. Court Culture  Versailles sets trend in court culture  Becomes center of French state  Symbol of Louis XIV’s power  Nobles were required to spend part of the year in attendance  Access to the king translates into political and economic power  Women take on a more prominent role in patronage system
  6. 6. French Classicism  Refers to imitation of Roman and Greek artistic models with the values of discipline, restraint, and balance in art  After 1660s, artists focused on glorifying Louis and the state  Nicholas Poussin exemplifies French classicism in painting  Jean-Baptiste Lully music  Moliere and Racine in theater
  7. 7. C H A P T E R 1 6 : A B S O L U T I S M A N D C O N S T I T U T I O N A L I S M I N W E S T E R N E U R O P E ( 1 5 8 9 - 1 7 1 5 ) Constitutionalism
  8. 8. Absolutist Claims in England (1603-1649)  After much bloodshed and instability, England emerged as a constitutional monarchy  James I (1603-1625) succeeds Elizabeth I, asserts his divine right to rule and antagonizes Parliament  House of Commons objects  Members comprised of new wealthy, capitalist class
  9. 9. Religious Divides  James I and his successor, Charles I (r. 1625-1649) sympathized with Catholics  Puritans in House of Commons were suspicious  In 1640 Charles I summons Parliament to request funding to suppress a rebellion in Scotland  Parliament passes laws which limit Charles’ power  Irish uprising leads to civil war  Charles I is executed by Parliament in 1649  Parliament is unable to address issue of sovereignty  England becomes military dictatorship run by Oliver Cromwell 1649-1660
  10. 10. Puritanical Absolutism in England  Oliver Cromwell and the Protectorate  Cromwell attempts to create a community of Puritan saints  After Cromwell’s death in 1658, England had enough of military rule  Longed for restoration of civilian rule, restoration of common law  By 1660, ready to restore monarchy
  11. 11. The Restoration  Charles II (r. 1660-1685) is invited back from exile in France  Limits Parliament by creating 5 man panel  Charles II is caught in secret negotiations, panic ensues  Was negotiating with Louis XIV for gradual return to Catholicism in England and an alliance against Netherlands
  12. 12. The Restoration  James II succeeds (r. 1685-1688) but is an open Catholic  Places many Catholics in high positions  Declares universal religious tolerance  Anglican bishops refuse to read his proclamation  James II’s wife produces a male heir  Fear of Catholic dynasty  Parliament offers throne to his daughter, Mary (Protestant)
  13. 13. The Restoration  James II flees in 1688 to France  Mary and her Dutch husband, Prince William of Orange are crowned king and queen of England
  14. 14. The Triumph of England’s Parliament  Constitutional Monarchy and Cabinet Government  The “Glorious” Revolution – Parliament’s expulsion of James II  Bill of Rights passed by Parliament  Guarantees independence of judiciary  Parliament has power to make laws and freedom of debate  Protestants granted religious toleration
  15. 15. The Triumph of England’s Parliament  John Locke’s Second Treatise of Civil Government (1690) defends Glorious Revolution  Government was a contract between ruled and ruler for protection of life, liberty, and property  Glorious Revolution was not a democratic revolution  Few English subjects could vote in election of Parliament  Cabinet system is born in 18th century  A cabinet of ministers, responsible to Parliament, governed  Further diminishes power of monarch
  16. 16. The Dutch Republic of 17th Century  Basis of power rested on assemblies of wealthy merchants in each of 7 provinces called “Estates”  A federal assembly, “States General”, ran foreign policy – but served the Estates  States General appointed a stadtholder in each province/Estate  Sometimes men held the post of stadtholder in all 7 provinces  Power relied on commercial prosperity
  17. 17. The Dutch Republic of 17th Century  The Netherlands was the only realm in Europe that allowed nearly complete religious toleration  In 1650, Dutch owned half of the ships in Europe  Dutch, as a result, controlled much of European trade  Had arguably the highest standard of living in the world  Began to decline around the time of the War of Spanish Succession