The Hundred Years War


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The Hundred Years War

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The Hundred Years War

  1. 1. THE HUNDRED YEARS WAR The End of Chivalry 1337-1453 VS
  2. 2. WHAT IS THE HUNDRED YEARS WAR? The term "Hundred Years War" is a term used by historians to describe a series of events in the 14th and 15th centuries. (1337-1453) The conflict was between France and England (and their allies) lasting 116 years, though there were long periods inbetween battles. It was fought primarily over claims by the English kings to the French throne.
  4. 4. THE NORMAN CONQUEST The causes for the Hundred Years War can go as far back as an event known as the Norman Conquest in 1066 AD. William of Normandy (a territory in France) was the cousin of the King of England. He thought he would inherit the throne when his cousin fell ill and died. Instead, he was passed over by a powerful English lord named Harold. Angered, William then invades England. During the Battle of Hastings, he defeats Harold (who gets shot in the eye by an arrow) and claims himself as King of England. He earns the nickname William the Conqueror.
  5. 5. ENGLISH LAND OR FRENCH LAND? Although William is now the King of England, he also controls lands back in France. From here on out, it is English rulers’ goal to control lands in both England and France. Some English kings even marry into the French nobility and gain more lands through marriage. France is not a unified country prior to the war. In fact, the French king only controlled about half the country. By the 1300’s, England held much land in France as did other powerful lords. English occupied lands
  6. 6. CONTROVERSY OVER SUCCESSION When the King of France, Philip IV, died in 1328, there was much controversy over who would succeed him since he had no sons. Philip did, however, have a daughter named Isabella who was married to the King of England. Together, they had a son. On the other hand, the king had a brother who also had a son. The question was, who should become the next king?
  7. 7. CONTROVERSY OVER SUCCESSION King Philip IV Charles of Valois Philip of Valois King of France Daughter of King King of Isabella of France Edward II of England Edward III Brother of King Nephew of King Grandson of King of France and son of King of England England
  8. 8. CONTROVERSY OVER SUCCESSION Following the death of King Philip IV in 1328, the French nobility selected Philip of Valois, a nephew of the last king through the male line to become the new king. He was chosen in preference to King Edward III of England, the grandson of the king through his daughter. In 1337, Edward III claimed the title “King of France.” and the war starts…
  9. 9. THE WAR
  10. 10. THE HUNDRED YEARS WAR The war was a series of short raids and expeditions punctuated by a few major battles, marked off by truces or ineffective treaties. At the start of the war, France appeared to have a clear advantage as they had a much larger population, army and were far wealthier than England.
  11. 11. THE HUNDRED YEARS WAR Although they were outnumbered in almost every battle, England had better weapon technology. In fact, the early part of the war was largely dominated by English victories.
  13. 13. THE BATTLE OF CRÉCY (1346) French knights were exhausted from riding all day to the battle field, only to then have to storm up a muddy hill while being fired upon by English archers. The outnumbered English completely decimated the larger French army. The French suffered over 15,000 casualties compared to just a few hundred English. Many French nobles are captured and held for ransom following the battle. The was also the first time cannons would be used on a European battlefield. English archers decimating French knights
  14. 14. THE LONGBOW To defend their position, the English used a new technology called the longbow. Its arrows had more penetrating power than a bolt from a French crossbow. Longbows could pierce the armor of a knight 200 yards away! A longbow could also be fired more rapidly. It is known as the “machine gun” of the Middle Ages. 12-15 arrows per minute.
  15. 15. THE LONGBOW
  16. 16. THE CANNON Cannons see their first use on the European battlefield during the Hundred Years War. At first, cannons were extremely heavy, long, tubular pieces of artillery that used gunpowder to launch a projectile such as an iron ball, stones or pellets. Later, the larger cannons would be replaced by smaller ones with wheels that were much more maneuverable and effective. Cannons were frightening and deadly weapons. The cannon would transform siege tactics and the ways forts/castles will be built to withstand such power.
  17. 17. CANNONS AND LONGBOWS AT CRÉCY “The English guns cast iron balls by means of fire...They made a noise like thunder and caused much loss in men and horses... [by the end of the battle], the whole plain was covered by men struck down by arrows and cannon balls.” -Jean Froissart, French Author
  18. 18. THE BATTLE OF POITIERS (1356) Edward the III’s son, Edward IV (known as the “Black Prince of Wales” due to his choice of armor) invaded France and reignited the war once again in 1356. The Black Prince’s army soundly defeated the French army. The English were also able to capture many French nobles including the new king of France, Jean II. They held him for ransom and forced him to sign a treaty that gave French lands to the English.
  19. 19. THE BATTLE OF AGINCOURT (1415) The English struck again in 1415 when King Henry V of England baited the larger French army into attacking his fortified position. With the aid of the dukes of Burgundy (area of France loyal to England), and using his superior archers, the French were completely destroyed. Around 10,000 French were killed as opposed to the 100 or so English. Over 1,500 French nobles are captured and held for ransom. Henry gained control over Normandy, Paris, and much of northern France!
  20. 20. FACT OR FICTION? PLUCK YEW! It has been said that at the Battle of Agincourt, the French threatened to cut off the middle fingers of the English archers. The middle finger is one of two fingers necessary to draw or “pluck” their bow (yew).  The French were overwhelming favorites to win the battle, largely outnumbering the English army.  When the English came out victorious, they mockingly made a certain “one fingered” gesture towards the defeated French.
  21. 21. THE TREATY OF TROYES (1420) Not long after the Battle of Agincourt, France and England came to a truce. In this truce, King Henry V of England would marry Catherine of Valois, the daughter of the French King, Charles VI. Charles VII, the king’s son, was disinherited and declared illegitimate. This would make Henry and Catherine’s children the rightful heirs to the French throne. An English victory was all but assured.
  22. 22. THE TREATY OF TROYES (1420) Charles VI Charles VII aka the Dauphin Henry V Catherine Charles VII is declared illegitimate. This angers many French nobles who believe the king has been coerced into this decision. They think his son is the rightful heir to the throne.
  23. 23. BACK TO WAR The treaty was short lived, however. In an unexpected coincidence, both King Charles VI and King Henry V unexpectedly die in the exact same year just months apart! (1422) This leaves the infant son of Henry and Catherine to inherit both kingdoms of England and France! Charles VII, of course, is not happy with this. The war is reignited once again when Charles claims that he is the rightful King of France. VS .
  24. 24. THE HEIGHT OF ENGLISH DOMINANCE The two kings’ deaths ushered in the final stage of the Hundred Years War. (1422-1453) So far, the war and political power seemed to be firmly in English hands. However, things were about to make a decisive turn in favor of the French.
  25. 25. FRENCH DESPAIR The political situation in France seemed hopeless. France had experienced defeat after defeat. The Dauphin had only a little bit of support from nobles; not enough to have a sufficient military force to oppose the English. Charles VII the was desperate for a miracle. Little did he know, that help would come in the form of a young, teenaged girl with no military experience…
  26. 26. JOAN OF ARC Joan of Arc was the daughter of peasants from an area in Burgundy that had suffered greatly under the English. She came to despise the English whilst growing up. Around age 12, she claimed she had started to have divine visions and began to hear “voices” from God. They told her to go to the Dauphin, lead the armies and save France from England. At age 16, she pleaded with French military commanders to let her meet the Dauphin. She was able to convince them by telling them about a French victory that had just occurred, (the messenger with the news wouldn’t arrive for a few days later.) Convinced she was sent by God, they took her to meet Charles VII. Equally impressed and perhaps out of desperation, he allows to accompany the army to Orléans where the English were sieging the town.
  27. 27. DID YOU KNOW? Joan of Arc cut her hair and dressed like a boy when accompanying the French army. This was done possibly to hide her identity, but more likely to avoid advances from the male soldiers.
  28. 28. THE SIEGE OF ORLÉANS (1429) The French town of Orléans was under attack by the English and was desperately running out of supplies. After the French general engaged in a largely fruitless bombardment of the English stronghold, he decided to cease fire and wait to attack again the next day. Joan knelt and prayed. Instead of waiting the next day, she quickly grabbed a ladder and led an assault on the fortress herself. The French soldiers rushed after her, swarming up the ladders. Joan was even injured by being struck in the shoulder by an arrow. She pulled it out herself and continued fighting. Her faith and charisma helped lead the French to victory. This battle is considered the turning point in the Hundred Years War.
  29. 29. CHARLES VII CROWNED KING During the next five weeks, Joan led French forces in a number of stunning victories over the English. She seemed to have a knack for military strategy and her reputation as a great leader spread far and wide through France. She became Charles’ most trusted general. She even personally escorted him into enemy territory, defeating town after town until they reached the city of Reims, where she saw him officially crowned King of France (ending his disinheritance).
  30. 30. JOAN THE MARTYR Joan of Arc brought inspiration through her charisma and faith. She gave France a sense of national identity and self-confidence. However, she is captured by the English in 1432 leading an attack on Paris. Because of her “unnatural dress” and claim of receiving visions from God, she is accused of being a heretic, practicing witchcraft, etc. She is found guilty and condemned to death by being burned at the stake. She is only 19 years old.
  31. 31. SAINT JOAN Instead of discouraging the French, Joan’s death actually had the opposite effect. She immediately becomes an enduring symbol of French resistance, unity and nationalism. Her faith in God inspires the French to rally and continue defeating the English in battle after battle. Recognizing that she was falsely accused of heresy, witchcraft, etc., the Catholic Church officially cleared her name and made her a saint in 1920.
  32. 32. THE END OF THE WAR After Joan’s death, the French advance continued. By 1450 the English had lost all their major military centers. In 1453 the French armies captured an English-held fortress at Castillon.  This was the last battle of the war. There was not treaty, only a cessation of hostilities.
  33. 33. TIMELINE OF THE HUNDRED YEARS WAR 1337 1360 1429 1453
  35. 35. THE HUNDRED YEARS WAR Gives strong national identities to both England and France. Saw the introduction of new weapons such as the longbow and the cannon. Military tactics would in turn be changed. (No more knights in heavy armor on horseback). Both countries see the weakening of feudal lords and the rise of peasantry which would eventually lead to changes in government. Along with the war, plague and famine would lead people to look for answers that the Church could not provide. This shifted people’s thinking and paved the way for the Reformation.