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The Renaissance


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The Renaissance

  1. 1. The Renaissance
  2. 2. Introduction As the economy and society changed, new ideas began to appear. This period of interest and developments in art, literature, science and learning is known as the Renaissance, French for “rebirth.”
  3. 3. Causes of the Renaissance
  4. 4. •1300’s, Black Death, starvation, warfare had overtaken Europe •Catastrophic events, enormous loss of life may have led to changes of the 1300’s •Decrease in population led to: – Increase in food production – Decline in food prices – More money to spend – Specialization in products Changes in Society • Urban areas specialized, particularly in Italy • Italy divided into several large city-states in north, various kingdoms, Papal States south • Catholic Church, nobles, merchants, artisans dominated society in city-states • Many sought to display new wealth with knowledge of arts The Rise of City-States Causes of the Renaissance
  5. 5. The Italian Renaissance • It is widely accepted that the Renaissance started in Italy during the 1300’s. • Italy during the Renaissance was largely an urban society. • The powerful city-states of the Middle Ages became political, economic, and social centers. (Venice, Florence and Milan) • A worldly viewpoint developed in this urban society as increasing wealth created new opportunities for material enjoyment.
  6. 6. Milan, Florence • Milan, west of Venice, based economy on agriculture, silk, weapons • Florence, to south, famous for banking, cloth • Monarchs appealed to Florentine bankers for money to fund wars • Merchants refined raw wool into fine cloth • Bankers, merchants created city to rival any in Europe Venice • With access to sea, Venice built economy, reputation on trade • Had long history of trading with other ports on Mediterranean Sea • Shipbuilding prospered, sailors traveled to Near East • Wealthy Venetian merchants built unique city, “work of art”
  7. 7. Italy’s Wealthy Class • In Italy, a wealthy merchant class develops • The wealthy enjoyed fine food, homes, clothes • Wealthy merchants also become patrons of the arts (financial backers) • Banking family, the Medici, controls Florence Villa Monteriggioni Lorenzo di Medici
  8. 8. The Medici • The Medici was a wealthy and powerful family that first gained prominence in the late 1300’s. • The Medici first started in cloth guilds, but they founded the Medici Bank which became the largest and most prosperous bank in Europe by the 1400’s. • Although they never officially became monarchs, the Medici family held great political power and influence in Italy. • Florence becomes very prosperous city. • The Medici left an important and impactful legacy because they were very supportive (financially) in the arts and architecture. • They supported famous artists such as Michelangelo, da Vinci, Brunelleschi, etc. Medici Family Crest
  9. 9. Assassin’s Creed • Assassin’s Creed II is a historical adventure game that takes place in Renaissance Italy, particularly Florence. • The plot centers around fictional depictions of true historical figures from the time including Leonardo da Vinci, the Medici family, Machiavelli, etc.
  10. 10. Renaissance Ideas •Venetian ships carried goods for trade and Greek scholars seeking refuge •Scholars brought ancient works thought to be lost Inspiration from the Ancients •Italians who could read looked for more information •Read Arabic translations of original texts •Searched libraries, found lost texts New World of Ideas •As they read, began to think about philosophy, art, science in different ways •Began to believe in human capacity to create, achieve Different Viewpoints
  11. 11. Renaissance Ideas • Interest in ancient Greek, Roman culture • Characteristics of good education • Artists, scholars study ruins of Rome and Latin, Greek manuscripts • Scholars move to Rome after fall of Constantinople in 1453 • Scholastic education gave way to classics: rhetoric, grammar, poetry, history, Latin, Greek • Subjects came to be known as humanities, movement they inspired known as humanism • Humanists emphasized individual accomplishment and human achievements. Humanities
  12. 12. Patrons • Medieval times, anonymous artists who worked for church created art • Renaissance artists worked for whoever offered them highest price • Buyers of art, patrons, might be wealthy individuals, city governments, or church Patrons of the Arts • Wealthy individuals competed, displaying wealth, modernity through purchase of artworks • Florence, Lorenzo de Medici supported most talented artists • Milan, ruling Sforza family benefactors of artists, others Competition Among Patrons
  13. 13. Art • Artists during the Renaissance tried to create realistic style copied from classical art (Greek and Roman) • It was very important for their depictions to be as realistic as possible. • Often times artists studied anatomy, botany, and how light would touch the subject • Most often they portray religious subjects or prominent citizens • Painters use perspective — a way to show three dimensions on a canvas • Sculpture shows natural postures and expressions
  14. 14. Michelangelo’s David (1504)
  15. 15. Michelangelo’s David (2011)
  16. 16. Renaissance Man • A new view of human beings that emphasized individual ability and worth emerged in the Renaissance. • The well-rounded, universal person was capable of achievements in many areas of life.
  17. 17. Renaissance Man
  18. 18. Leonardo da Vinci • Leonardo da Vinci was a painter, sculptor, architect, inventor, and mathematician. • Wrote out ideas, filling 20,000 pages of notes • His paintings are still studied and admired • His interests, enthusiasm boundless
  19. 19. Leonardo da Vinci
  20. 20. Michelangelo •Studied anatomy •Was a sculpture and painter •Age 24, won fame with Pietà, sculpture of Jesus’ mother Mary holding son’s dead body •Marble statue of David •Most famous painting, artwork on ceiling of Sistine Chapel
  21. 21. Michelangelo
  22. 22. Renaissance Ideas Scientific Information • Humanists searched archives, Arab translations for classical texts • Discovered wealth of scientific information Scientific Challenges • Science soon became important avenue of inquiry • Church’s teachings about world were challenged, particularly that Earth center of universe Natural World • Focus of Renaissance on human sciences, history, politics, geography • New ideas about natural world began to be explored also Earth, Sun • Nicholas Copernicus said Sun was center of universe • Galileo Galilei arrested by church officials for saying Earth orbited Sun
  23. 23. Copernicus and Galileo • Copernicus made strides in astronomy and came up with the theory that the sun was the center of the universe and not the earth. • Galileo followed up and reaffirmed these claims. • Galileo was seen as a heretic, for this position was not popular amongst the Church.
  24. 24. Did you know? • Galileo was asked by the Church to come in and defend his position on his findings and theories. • He was seen as a threat and a heretic and condemned by the Church. • He was ordered to be imprisoned and his writings were banished. • Later, this sentence was reduced to “house arrest”. • He lived out his remaining days studying the sun, moon, and stars. • Ironically, he went blind from staring at the sun too long through his telescope.
  25. 25. Machiavelli • Niccolò Machievelli, author of political guidebook, The Prince • Machiavelli wrote many views on politics. He spoke of how to get power and keep it. His notes are still read today and influence politicians, CEO’s and world leaders alike.
  26. 26. Did You Know? • While incarcerated in Clinton Correctional Facility, Tupac Shakur read and studied Niccolò Machiavelli and other published works. • This inspired his pseudonym "Makaveli" . • Under this name he released the record The Don Killuminati: The 7 Day Theory which was his 5th and final album and released after his death in 1996.
  27. 27. Northern Renaissance • In the 1400s, the ideas of the Italian Renaissance begin to spread to Northern Europe such as France, Germany, Great Britain, Spain, etc.
  28. 28. The Printing Press • Around 1440 Johann Gutenberg of Germany develops printing press • Printing press allows for quick, cheap book production • The first book printed with movable type; the Bible (1455) • The printing press is perhaps the most significant invention in history . • Why?
  29. 29. The Printing Press • During the Renaissance, there was a sharp rise in literacy and therefore, a high demand for books. • The old way of hand copying could not keep up for this new demand. • Printing makes information widely available. • Illiterate people benefit by having books read to them. • Published accounts of maps and charts lead to more discoveries. • Bibles were especially in high demand and the mass productions of it helped the spread of Christianity even further.
  30. 30. Writing • The Renaissance also gave way to a Golden Age of Literacy. • During this time, several significant authors and playwrights emerge. • William Shakespeare is known for his works in literature and as a playwright. • He is considered possibly the greatest playwright of all time and his unique writing style is still studied today.
  31. 31. Changes in Religion • See Reformation PowerPoint
  32. 32. Impact Today • The events that occurred during this time period still impact our lives today. • Western art is founded on classical styles developed by the Greeks and Romans. • Machiavelli’s views on politics had a profound influence on later political leaders in the Western world and are still studied in universities today. • The Jesuits have founded many Catholic colleges and universities in the United States.