Generator 101 power point

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  • Throughout our more than forty years of business development, top management at Generac has never lost sight of its original objective—the manufacture of electric power generation equipment.
    We believe our success is due in large measure to the caliber of our people and the relationships we've forged with our customers and suppliers. We’ve worked hard to establish a reputation for product excellence and innovation. Today, Generac is recognized in the industry for its high quality, dependable products and its responsiveness to customer needs.
  • This slide is the first in a sequence of animated slides. Each animated power sequence should be explained.
    An Open Transition ATS continuously monitors incoming voltage from the utility line. When utility power is interrupted, the Open Transition ATS immediately senses the problem and signals the generator to start. Once the generator is producing rated voltage and current, the Open Transition ATS safely switches from the utility line to the generator power line. While the load is on generator power, the Open Transition ATS continues to monitor the utility line’s power supply or lack of power supply. When the switch senses the utility line voltage has returned for a sustained amount of time, it transfers the electrical load back to the utility line. During this retransfer process, the Open Transition ATS breaks the load from both power sources. A loss of power is seen even when going from two live sources.
  • Sequence 1
    The power flowing from the utility has been interrupted or the utility voltage is lower than the acceptable limits. This low voltage limit is typically set to 85% of normal utility voltage.
  • Sequence 2
    The transfer switch waits briefly for the utility to immediately return. Most outages are only 1 or 2 seconds. Transfer switches have a line interrupt timer that delays the starting of the generator for 2-3 seconds. This allows the utility an opportunity to clear a fault in utility distribution prior to starting the generator. The window of delay is different for each manufacturer, but it usually varies from 0.1 to 10 seconds.
  • Sequence 3
    The generator is signaled to start by the transfer switch. Traditionally, this was a simple 2-wire start contact closure. Digitally controlled switches may perform this function via digital communications.
    During this sequence, the generator is building output voltage and frequency. The ATS must sense rated output prior to transferring.
  • Sequence 4
    The ATS verifies rated generator output. Typically, ATS settings are 90% voltage and 90% frequency.
    Transfer switches also have a warm-up timer for the engine; however, it is often bypassed or set to zero. Most applications require, or desire, the generator to start and run within 10 seconds. If an engine warm-up period is desired, it is typically set for 30 seconds to 1 minute.
  • Sequence 5
    The ATS now transfers the load onto the generator.
  • Sequence 6
    Utility voltage returns and is sensed by the ATS controller. When the ATS controller detects utility voltage at an acceptable level, it begins the return-to-utility timer. Typically, acceptable utility voltage is set to 90% of normal voltage. This setting is often referenced as the utility pick-up voltage.
  • Sequence 7
    The return-to-utility timer delays retransfer to the utility. This timer is typically set for 15 to 20 minutes. Utility volts must remain above the voltage pick-up setting for the entire length of time set by the return-to-utility timer.
    Reasons For Timer Delay:
    Ensure better utility stability prior to retransfer (The utility has just had an event.)
    Good for the generator to have facility load (It minimizes wet stacking effects.)
    A standard option on transfer switches is a return-to-utility bypass function. This provides the user with the ability to force a transfer back to the utility without waiting for the return-to-utility delay. This might be done if the generator is low on fuel.
  • Sequence 8
    The ATS transfers back to the live utility voltage. Most transfer switches derive transferring power from the source to which they are transferring. This prevents the ATS from inadvertently transferring into a dead source.
  • Sequence 9
    After the load is switched back to the utility, the generator cools down by running unloaded for a preset time. At the end of this cool-down period, the generator shuts down. Typically, the generator cool-down timer is set for 3 to 5 minutes.
  • Generator 101 power point

    1. 1. By: Kranz Buere Lemar Lorzano
    2. 2.        When would we need an emergency generator? How does an emergency generator work? What planning needs to be done? What loads are powered by a generator? How do I properly size the generator? Where do we get one in an emergency? Should we Purchase or Rent?
    3. 3.  Causes of Outages        Weather: lightning, wind, rain, snow, heat, cold and ice Utility Equipment problems and grid overload Fallen trees or tree growth Animal Contact Human Error: Underground digging, cranes, traffic, vandalism, etc. Misc.: Mechanical damage, construction error, fire, etc. Risks involved during a loss of power       Loss of Communications Loss of Security Lost or Corrupted Data Lost Productivity Lost Confidence Continuation of Emergency Services •3
    4. 4. •4
    5. 5.    Catastrophic Events and Weather cause us to question the reliability of our critical power systems What risks are real? What are the most common failures of emergency power? Area Date Cause Without Power CA 6/06 Grid Failures 2,500,000 St. Louis 7/06 T-Storms 700,000 Buffalo 10/06 Snow 400,000 St. Louis 12/06 Snow/Ice 720,000 WA/OR 12/06 T-Storms, Wind 1,500,000 OK/MO 1/07 Ice 500,000 Northeast 4/07 Snow 500,000 NY 6/07 T-Storms 385,000 Chicago 8/07 T-Storms 615,000 •5
    6. 6.        When would we need an emergency generator? How does an emergency generator work? What planning needs to be done? What loads are powered by a generator? How do I properly size the generator? Where do we get one in an emergency? Should we Purchase or Rent? •6
    7. 7.   Generator and Automatic Transfer Switch Permanent or Rental Generator
    8. 8.  Emergency Generators are complex  System Design, Installation, On-going Maintenance impact reliability.  Single Generator designs have single points of failure  Rental Power backup strategy  Consider Integrated Paralleling Solution with multiple generators  Fuel Reliability  Natural Gas, Propane, Diesel, Bi-fuel  How much fuel is enough? Is fuel maintained?  Costs  Fuel type, paralleled solution, enclosures, connectivity features  What is the best solution for critical power? •8
    9. 9. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION Critical Status: Normal Transfer Switch Generator Distribution Panel Equipment Utility Distribution Panel Transfer Switch Generator •9
    10. 10. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION Critical Status: Utility failure Transfer Switch Generator Distribution Panel Equipment Utility Distribution Panel Transfer Switch Generator •10
    11. 11. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION Status: Line interrupt delay Generator Distribution Panel Critical Transfer Switch Equipment Utility Distribution Panel Transfer Switch Generator •11
    12. 12. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION Status: Transfer switches signal generator to start Generator Distribution Panel Critical Transfer Switch Equipment Utility Distribution Panel Transfer Switch Generator •12
    13. 13. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION Status: Transfer switches verify rated output Generator Distribution Panel Critical Transfer Switch Equipment Utility Distribution Panel Transfer Switch Generator •13
    14. 14. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION Status: Transfer switches transfer to generator Generator Distribution Panel Critical Transfer Switch Equipment Utility Distribution Panel Transfer Switch Generator •14
    15. 15. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION Status: Utility is re-energized Generator Distribution Panel Critical Transfer Switch Equipment Utility Distribution Panel Transfer Switch Generator •15
    16. 16. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION Status: Return-to-utility timer Generator Distribution Panel Critical Transfer Switch Equipment Utility Distribution Panel Transfer Switch Generator •16
    17. 17. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION Status: The load is transferred back to utility, generator cool-down begins Generator Distribution Panel Critical Transfer Switch Equipment Utility Distribution Panel Transfer Switch Generator •17
    18. 18. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION Status: Generator shuts down Generator Distribution Panel Critical Transfer Switch Equipment Utility Distribution Panel Transfer Switch Generator •18
    19. 19.        When would we need an emergency generator? How does an emergency generator work? What planning needs to be done? What loads are powered by a generator? How do I properly size the generator? Where do we get one in an emergency? Should we Purchase or Rent? •19
    20. 20.  Full or Limited Operation?   Orderly Shutdown?   Standby Generator picks up selected loads automatically UPS backs up selected loads until they can be shut down No Backup?   No power until the utility returns No services provided •20
    21. 21.       Who will be in charge? Determine the loads to be backed up What is the Voltage and Amperage? Where will the generator be located? How will it be hooked up to the building? Who will hook it up? Have we scheduled a practice outage? •21
    22. 22.        When would we need an emergency generator? How does an emergency generator work? What planning needs to be done? What loads are powered by a generator? How do I properly size the generator? Where do we get one in an emergency? Should we Purchase or Rent? •22
    23. 23.        Lighting Computers Security System and Phone System Air Conditioning/Heat UPS/Data Pumps (fuel, water, etc) Other electrical equipment •23
    24. 24.        When would we need an emergency generator? How does an emergency generator work? What planning needs to be done? What loads are powered by a generator? How do I properly size the generator? Where do we get one in an emergency? Should we Purchase or Rent? •24
    25. 25.  After selecting loads (Whole or Limited)     What is the Voltage (single or three phase) What is the Amperage needed Oversize the generator by 25% to handle motor starting and unexpected loads Work with Engineer, Electrician or Generator Dealer  Make a written plan for this if you are relying on rental power  kW = Volts * Amps * 1.732 * 0.8 1000 •25
    26. 26.        When would we need an emergency generator? How does an emergency generator work? What planning needs to be done? What loads are powered by a generator? How do I properly size the generator? Where do we get one in an emergency? Should we Purchase or Rent? •26
    27. 27.     Generator Dealers (Generac, Cat, Cummins, Kohler, MTU) Equipment Rental Houses (United, RSC, Hertz) Make prior arrangements with supplier Have a backup plan to your backup plan! In a weather related outage, the rental inventories are limited  Have an electrician hook it up  •27
    28. 28.        When would we need an emergency generator? How does an emergency generator work? What planning needs to be done? What loads are powered by a generator? How do I properly size the generator? Where do we get one in an emergency? Should we Purchase or Rent? •28
    29. 29.  Done properly, and rental strategy could work  Plan ahead  Save costs  Emergency power only when needed  Guaranteed contract should be considered  Electrician should hook it up  Train personnel on operation  Have a practice power outage
    30. 30.  Done poorly, it won’t work Plan everything  Who is trained on-site to operate the generator?  What loads are backed up?   Volts/Amps/kW Rating  Who will deliver the generator?  Dealer or outside service  Are the roads blocked due to the storm? Where will the connections be made in the building?  Who provides the cables?  Where will I get fuel? Do I have a backup plan for fuel?  How quiet is it?  Is it sized properly?  How will I pay for it? 
    31. 31.  Purchase Automatic Standby Power     Immediately available during an outage Maintenance Plan Exercise automatically, preparing you for an outage Very affordable at any kW size  Diesel  Natural Gas or Propane  Bifuel  Quiet
    32. 32.        When would we need an emergency generator? How does an emergency generator work? What planning needs to be done? What loads are powered by a generator? How do I properly size the generator? Where do we get one in an emergency? Should we Purchase or Rent? •32
    33. 33. •33

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