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By:
Kranz Buere
Lemar Lorzano
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When would we need an emergency
generator?
How does an emergency generator work?
What planning needs to be...
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Causes of Outages
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Weather: lightning, wind, rain,
snow, heat, cold and ice
Utility Equipment problems ...
•4
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Catastrophic Events
and Weather cause us
to question the
reliability of our critical
power systems
What risks are ...









When would we need an emergency
generator?
How does an emergency generator work?
What planning needs to be...




Generator and Automatic Transfer
Switch
Permanent or Rental Generator


Emergency Generators are complex
 System

Design, Installation, On-going Maintenance
impact reliability.
 Single Gene...
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
Critical

Status: Normal

Transfer Switch

Generator
Distribution Panel

Equipment

Utility
Distribu...
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
Critical

Status: Utility failure

Transfer Switch

Generator
Distribution Panel

Equipment

Utility...
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
Status: Line interrupt delay

Generator
Distribution Panel

Critical
Transfer Switch

Equipment

Uti...
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
Status: Transfer switches signal generator to start

Generator
Distribution Panel

Critical
Transfer...
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
Status: Transfer switches verify rated output

Generator
Distribution Panel

Critical
Transfer Switc...
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
Status: Transfer switches transfer to generator

Generator
Distribution Panel

Critical
Transfer Swi...
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
Status: Utility is re-energized

Generator
Distribution Panel

Critical
Transfer Switch

Equipment

...
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
Status: Return-to-utility timer

Generator
Distribution Panel

Critical
Transfer Switch

Equipment

...
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
Status: The load is transferred back to utility,
generator cool-down begins

Generator
Distribution ...
SEQUENCE OF OPERATION
Status: Generator shuts down

Generator
Distribution Panel

Critical
Transfer Switch

Equipment

Uti...









When would we need an emergency
generator?
How does an emergency generator work?
What planning needs to be...


Full or Limited
Operation?




Orderly Shutdown?




Standby Generator picks
up selected loads
automatically
UPS ba...
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



Who will be in charge?
Determine the loads to be backed up
What is the Voltage and Amperage?
Where will the ...









When would we need an emergency
generator?
How does an emergency generator work?
What planning needs to be...
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






Lighting
Computers
Security System and Phone System
Air Conditioning/Heat
UPS/Data
Pumps (fuel, water, etc)...
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






When would we need an emergency
generator?
How does an emergency generator work?
What planning needs to be...


After selecting loads (Whole or Limited)





What is the Voltage (single or three phase)
What is the Amperage need...









When would we need an emergency
generator?
How does an emergency generator work?
What planning needs to be...





Generator Dealers (Generac, Cat, Cummins, Kohler, MTU)
Equipment Rental Houses (United, RSC, Hertz)
Make prior ar...









When would we need an emergency
generator?
How does an emergency generator work?
What planning needs to be...


Done properly, and rental strategy could
work
 Plan

ahead
 Save costs
 Emergency power only when needed
 Guarantee...


Done poorly, it won’t work

Plan everything
 Who is trained on-site to operate the generator?
 What loads are backed ...
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Purchase Automatic Standby Power
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
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Immediately available during an outage
Maintenance Plan
Exercise automaticall...
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



When would we need an emergency
generator?
How does an emergency generator work?
What planning needs to be...
•33
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Generator 101 power point

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Generator 101 power point

  1. 1. By: Kranz Buere Lemar Lorzano
  2. 2.        When would we need an emergency generator? How does an emergency generator work? What planning needs to be done? What loads are powered by a generator? How do I properly size the generator? Where do we get one in an emergency? Should we Purchase or Rent?
  3. 3.  Causes of Outages        Weather: lightning, wind, rain, snow, heat, cold and ice Utility Equipment problems and grid overload Fallen trees or tree growth Animal Contact Human Error: Underground digging, cranes, traffic, vandalism, etc. Misc.: Mechanical damage, construction error, fire, etc. Risks involved during a loss of power       Loss of Communications Loss of Security Lost or Corrupted Data Lost Productivity Lost Confidence Continuation of Emergency Services •3
  4. 4. •4
  5. 5.    Catastrophic Events and Weather cause us to question the reliability of our critical power systems What risks are real? What are the most common failures of emergency power? Area Date Cause Without Power CA 6/06 Grid Failures 2,500,000 St. Louis 7/06 T-Storms 700,000 Buffalo 10/06 Snow 400,000 St. Louis 12/06 Snow/Ice 720,000 WA/OR 12/06 T-Storms, Wind 1,500,000 OK/MO 1/07 Ice 500,000 Northeast 4/07 Snow 500,000 NY 6/07 T-Storms 385,000 Chicago 8/07 T-Storms 615,000 •5
  6. 6.        When would we need an emergency generator? How does an emergency generator work? What planning needs to be done? What loads are powered by a generator? How do I properly size the generator? Where do we get one in an emergency? Should we Purchase or Rent? •6
  7. 7.   Generator and Automatic Transfer Switch Permanent or Rental Generator
  8. 8.  Emergency Generators are complex  System Design, Installation, On-going Maintenance impact reliability.  Single Generator designs have single points of failure  Rental Power backup strategy  Consider Integrated Paralleling Solution with multiple generators  Fuel Reliability  Natural Gas, Propane, Diesel, Bi-fuel  How much fuel is enough? Is fuel maintained?  Costs  Fuel type, paralleled solution, enclosures, connectivity features  What is the best solution for critical power? •8
  9. 9. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION Critical Status: Normal Transfer Switch Generator Distribution Panel Equipment Utility Distribution Panel Transfer Switch Generator •9
  10. 10. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION Critical Status: Utility failure Transfer Switch Generator Distribution Panel Equipment Utility Distribution Panel Transfer Switch Generator •10
  11. 11. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION Status: Line interrupt delay Generator Distribution Panel Critical Transfer Switch Equipment Utility Distribution Panel Transfer Switch Generator •11
  12. 12. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION Status: Transfer switches signal generator to start Generator Distribution Panel Critical Transfer Switch Equipment Utility Distribution Panel Transfer Switch Generator •12
  13. 13. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION Status: Transfer switches verify rated output Generator Distribution Panel Critical Transfer Switch Equipment Utility Distribution Panel Transfer Switch Generator •13
  14. 14. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION Status: Transfer switches transfer to generator Generator Distribution Panel Critical Transfer Switch Equipment Utility Distribution Panel Transfer Switch Generator •14
  15. 15. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION Status: Utility is re-energized Generator Distribution Panel Critical Transfer Switch Equipment Utility Distribution Panel Transfer Switch Generator •15
  16. 16. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION Status: Return-to-utility timer Generator Distribution Panel Critical Transfer Switch Equipment Utility Distribution Panel Transfer Switch Generator •16
  17. 17. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION Status: The load is transferred back to utility, generator cool-down begins Generator Distribution Panel Critical Transfer Switch Equipment Utility Distribution Panel Transfer Switch Generator •17
  18. 18. SEQUENCE OF OPERATION Status: Generator shuts down Generator Distribution Panel Critical Transfer Switch Equipment Utility Distribution Panel Transfer Switch Generator •18
  19. 19.        When would we need an emergency generator? How does an emergency generator work? What planning needs to be done? What loads are powered by a generator? How do I properly size the generator? Where do we get one in an emergency? Should we Purchase or Rent? •19
  20. 20.  Full or Limited Operation?   Orderly Shutdown?   Standby Generator picks up selected loads automatically UPS backs up selected loads until they can be shut down No Backup?   No power until the utility returns No services provided •20
  21. 21.       Who will be in charge? Determine the loads to be backed up What is the Voltage and Amperage? Where will the generator be located? How will it be hooked up to the building? Who will hook it up? Have we scheduled a practice outage? •21
  22. 22.        When would we need an emergency generator? How does an emergency generator work? What planning needs to be done? What loads are powered by a generator? How do I properly size the generator? Where do we get one in an emergency? Should we Purchase or Rent? •22
  23. 23.        Lighting Computers Security System and Phone System Air Conditioning/Heat UPS/Data Pumps (fuel, water, etc) Other electrical equipment •23
  24. 24.        When would we need an emergency generator? How does an emergency generator work? What planning needs to be done? What loads are powered by a generator? How do I properly size the generator? Where do we get one in an emergency? Should we Purchase or Rent? •24
  25. 25.  After selecting loads (Whole or Limited)     What is the Voltage (single or three phase) What is the Amperage needed Oversize the generator by 25% to handle motor starting and unexpected loads Work with Engineer, Electrician or Generator Dealer  Make a written plan for this if you are relying on rental power  kW = Volts * Amps * 1.732 * 0.8 1000 •25
  26. 26.        When would we need an emergency generator? How does an emergency generator work? What planning needs to be done? What loads are powered by a generator? How do I properly size the generator? Where do we get one in an emergency? Should we Purchase or Rent? •26
  27. 27.     Generator Dealers (Generac, Cat, Cummins, Kohler, MTU) Equipment Rental Houses (United, RSC, Hertz) Make prior arrangements with supplier Have a backup plan to your backup plan! In a weather related outage, the rental inventories are limited  Have an electrician hook it up  •27
  28. 28.        When would we need an emergency generator? How does an emergency generator work? What planning needs to be done? What loads are powered by a generator? How do I properly size the generator? Where do we get one in an emergency? Should we Purchase or Rent? •28
  29. 29.  Done properly, and rental strategy could work  Plan ahead  Save costs  Emergency power only when needed  Guaranteed contract should be considered  Electrician should hook it up  Train personnel on operation  Have a practice power outage
  30. 30.  Done poorly, it won’t work Plan everything  Who is trained on-site to operate the generator?  What loads are backed up?   Volts/Amps/kW Rating  Who will deliver the generator?  Dealer or outside service  Are the roads blocked due to the storm? Where will the connections be made in the building?  Who provides the cables?  Where will I get fuel? Do I have a backup plan for fuel?  How quiet is it?  Is it sized properly?  How will I pay for it? 
  31. 31.  Purchase Automatic Standby Power     Immediately available during an outage Maintenance Plan Exercise automatically, preparing you for an outage Very affordable at any kW size  Diesel  Natural Gas or Propane  Bifuel  Quiet
  32. 32.        When would we need an emergency generator? How does an emergency generator work? What planning needs to be done? What loads are powered by a generator? How do I properly size the generator? Where do we get one in an emergency? Should we Purchase or Rent? •32
  33. 33. •33

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