Immunology (PHRD-309) First Lecture Jan 18th, Wednesday OverviewInsong James Lee, Ph.D.Office: Bunting Hall, room 206Office hours: Tuesdays and Wednesdays, 1-3:00 PM , Fridays, 10:00 AM to 1:00 PMOffice tel: 410-532-5042E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgDepartment of Pharmaceutical SciencesSchool of PharmacyNotre Dame of Maryland UniversityBaltimore, MD
Have you previously taken a college or higher level Immunology class? 50% 50% 1. Yes 2. No s No Ye
Was immunology a significant component (>10%) of your microbiology class? 50% 50%1. Yes2. No s No Ye
How many of you have read chapt 1 ofThe immune system by Peter Parham? 50% 50% 1. Yes 2. No s No Ye
What is Immunology?Websters New Collegiate Dictionary:A science that deals with the phenomena and causes ofimmunity. Immunity: the quality or state of being immune.Immune: having a high degree of resistance (Latin;Immunitas; freedom from).Peter Parham, Ph.D.:Is the study of the physiological mechanisms that humansand animals use to defend their bodies from invasion byother organisms.
You need to know Immunology in order to:understand:• How our bodies protect against infectious agents.• Pathophysiological processes of immunological related diseases.• Drug targets.• Mechanism of drug action.• To better assess the efficacy of new therapies and products.• To find ways to improve the function of your and your patients’ immune system for healthier lives.
Course Description:This course is an introduction to the organization, function andregulation of the immune system including the basic propertiesof humoral and cell-mediated immune responses, antigen andantibody structure and function, effectormechanisms, complement, major histocompatibilitycomplexes, and cytotoxic responses. The role of these basicimmunology principles in immuno-deficiencies, auto-immunedisorders, hypersensitivity reactions, immunity issuesassociated with transplantation, cancer and antibody baseddrug therapy will also be covered. Three hours of lecture perweek.Required Textbook: The immunesystem, Peter Parham. Third edition,Garland Sciences
Learning Outcomes:Apply knowledge of biomedical and pharmaceutical sciencesand evolving scientific technologies to make medicationtherapy decisions and improve patient outcomes.1.1 Integrate and apply knowledge of the biomedical sciences(anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, immunology, pharmacology) to make medication therapy decisions and improve patientoutcomes.1.3 Use knowledge of evolving scientific technologies to makemedication therapy decisions and improve patient outcomes.1.4 Communicate with patients, caregivers, health careprofessionals, and the lay public about biomedical andpharmaceutical concepts using appropriate scientific terms.
Learning Strategies/methodologies:This class will involve self-directed learning and peer to peer learning as well as guided learning (from professor).• Students are expected to “preview” and/or read all reading assignments prior to class. Must learn to read scientific literature!• The reading material and directed reading questions will be discussed in class with participation expected of every student.• Active learning exercises will be provided at the end of certain lectures in the form of problem to reinforce the learning of information and concepts discussed in class. Students are encouraged to work on the problems and see Dr Lee during office hrs if they have problems with the learning exercises.
Reading science literature, including textbooks:Before you start reading, “preview” first!!!What is preview?It is the act of finding the FRAMEWORK of a given learning event (lecture notes or a textbook reading assignment) before engaging in that learning event (attending lecture or reading textbook).This should not be achieved linearly (reading from beginning to end in one pass) and it should be time sensitive (about 15 minutes long).
This is constructivist learning: by building the framework first, you will augment attention, retention, connectivity and engagement.For significant learning, we need to revisit ideas, ponder them, try them out, play with them and use them. This cannot happen just by reading or memorizing.If you reflect on anything you have learned, you soon realize that it is the product of repeated exposure and thought. Moments of insight can be traced back to longer periods of preparation.
Preview is not about the details.Therefore, for this course, the quizzeswill only cover material alreadydiscussed in class.However, everyone will be required tohand in previews for the next threelectures
Biochemistry and Immunology are subjects that constantlybuilds upon prior knowledge. Without an understanding ofprevious ideas, new material are harder to understand andmaking connections become more difficult.The more connections you make to prior knowledge, the moreconnections you make to your own life, and the moreconnections you make to things you have learned in otherclasses, the better you will learn, enjoy, and remember thematerial.This is the key not only to getting a higher grade, but tobecoming a better pharmacist and more well rounded humanbeing.
Effective Study Habits• Professional school! Need to spend significant time on class preparation and studying (approximately 10 hrs/week). Quiet space, (50- 10 rule for 3 hrs).• Maturity and discipline (limit distractions including: cell phone, facebook, texting, tweeting, etc)• Employment: (<15 hrs per week).• Delayed gratification!
Student Assessment Techniques:4 midterm exams (17% each) and 1 comprehensive final (22%): total of 90% of grade.Quizzes and preview hand-ins: 10% of grade.Students are expected to self-assess using the problem sets handed out at the end of classes.Final Course Grade Scale93 - 100 = A87 - 92 = B+80 - 86 = B75 - 79 = C+70 - 74 = C60 - 69 = D< 59 =F
Classroom etiquette:Students will be expected to use:• A respectful tone of voice and appropriate content during verbal communication.•Appropriate behavior in the class. Everyone has a right to be heard and should be able to express constructive comments without ridicule.• No eating in the classroom.
Notre Dame of Maryland University distinctives: Challenge women and men: • To strive for intellectual and professional excellence. • To build inclusive communities. • To engage in service to others. • To promote social responsibility.“The capacity to care is the thing that gives life its deepest meaning and significance” Pablo Casals
Innate immunity (not intrinsically affected by prior contact with the infectious agent)• Anatomy & antimicrobial peptides• Complement• Cells of the immune system• TLR receptors & NFkB• Cytokines• InflammationAdaptive immunity (modified by previous exposure to Infectious agent)• Antibodies and Immunoglobulin Genes• Generation of B cell diversity• Antigen recognition by T lymphocytes• MHC-I&II• Development of B and T lymphocytes• T cell mediated immunity• Immunity mediated by B cells and antibodies
Clinical immunology• The body’s defenses against infection• Failures of the body’s defenses• HIV and AIDS• Hypersensitivity• Disruption of healthy tissue by the immune response• Cancer-immunological component• Immunological techniques• Vaccines/vaccine development• Transplantation of tissues/organs• Gut flora/mind-immune function
Immunology (PHRD-309) First lecture: Innate immunity -anatomy and antimicrobial peptidesInsong James Lee, Ph.D.Office: Doyle Building, room 148Office hours: Tuesdays and Thursdays, 3:00 PM to 4:00 PM, Fridays, 12:00 to 2:00 PMOffice tel: 410-532-5042E-mail: email@example.comDepartment of Pharmaceutical SciencesSchool of PharmacyCollege of Notre Dame of MarylandBaltimore, MD
First lecture: Innate immunity -anatomy and antimicrobial peptidesLearning objectives:• Differentiate between innate and acquired immunity.• Be able to describe the four major class of infectious agents.• Demonstrate the anatomical and biochemical (antimicrobial peptides) aspects of innate immunity. Corresponding pgs of Peter Parham’s, The immune system, Chapt 1, Pgs 1-26 and Chapt 2 43-44.
The importance of our immune systemDavid VetterSCIDs:Severe Combined Immunodeficiency.Characterized by a severe defect inboth the T- & B-lymphocyte systems.
World wide deaths from infectious disease in the year 2000 Estimate by the World Health Organization http://www.who.int/topics/infectious_diseases/en/
Human Immunodeficiency Staphylococcus aureus Virus (HIV) Influenza virus (colonizes skin-causes acne) Streptococcus pyogenes Salmonella enteritidis Mycobacterium tuberculosis(tonsillitis and scarlet fever) (food poisoning) (tuberculosis)
The immune system can be thought of as being comprised of two parts:Innate immunity: the body’s immediate immuneresponse to foreign invaders that is not dependent onprior exposure to the same invader.Adaptive immunity: the response of antigen-specific B and T lymphocytes to antigen, including thedevelopment of immunological memory (which takestime to build).
Differences between innate and adaptive immunity
First line of defense: skin
Strong barriers toinfection, ie, hair, nailsand skin: BlueMucosal membrane: Red
Mucus The viscoelastic, polymer-like properties of mucus arederived from the major gel-forming glycoprotein components called mucins.Mucins consist of a peptide backbone containing alternating glycosylated and nonglycosylated domains, with O-linked glycosylated regions comprising 70–80% of the polymer. N-Acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, fucose, and galactose are the 4 primary mucin oligosaccharides
Mucin genes Major Respiratory TractGene Tissue localization ExpressionMUC 1 all secretory epithelial cells + (carcinomas)MUC 2 small intestine, colon +MUC 3 small intestineMUC 4 airways, colon +MUC 5AC airways, stomach +MUC 5B airways, submaxillary glands +MUC 6 stomach, ileum, gall bladderMUC 7 sublingual and submax. glands +MUC 8 airways +MUC 9 oviductMUC 11 colonMUC 12 colonMUC 13 colon, airway +
Guaifenesin: (3-(2-methoxyphenoxy)propane-1,2-diol) Similar medicines derived from the guaiac tree were in use asa generic remedy by Native Americans when explorers reached North America in the 1500s. Guaifenesin may act as an irritant to gastric vagal receptors, and recruit efferent parasympathetic reflexes thatcause glandular exocytosis of a less viscous mucus mixture. Cough may be provoked. This combination may flushtenacious, congealed mucopurulent material from obstructed small airways and lead to a temporary improvement in dyspnea or the work of breathing. C10H14O4
Lysozyme:Known to facilitate the hydrolysis of aβ-1-4-glycosidic bond between N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylmuramic acid in bacterial cellwalls
Human defensin proteins
Antibiotic mechanism of defensins
First lecture: Innate immunity -anatomy and antimicrobial peptidesSummary:•There is a myriad of infectious agents that can harm human beings (pathogens).•The innate immune response provides the first line of defense but does not improve with repeated exposure to infection.• The innate immune system is partly comprised of the secretion of mucus, antimicrobial peptides and others.